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Academic Writing for Publication

 

Contents

I. Introduction

II. Background

III. Antithesis

IV. Antethesis

V. Protothesis

VI. Synthesis

VII. Reiteration of Rubric: Reality of Academic Writing

VIII. Peer Review

IX. Adversarial Reviews

X. Meeting the challenge in mastering the English language

XI. Academic Writing Requirements

XII. Summary

XIII. Recommendations

XIV. Bibliography

XV. Footnotes

Introduction

In academia, investigation, research (research is frequently confused with investigation, although in Academic English they mean different aspects in the conduct of inquiry), writing, rewriting, editing, redacting, and publishing is conducted in several sets of forms and genres, not all that are geared, directed, responsive to or a part of the author’s field of specialization to the lamentable loss of true scholarship.  Standards are sacrificed for immediacy, popularity, currying of favors and attention and, sometimes enrichment or elevation in academic stature, from colleagues, peers, faculty, administrators and students, as pointed out by Harwood and Hadley (2004) and Hyland (2004).  These, aforementioned thinkers, have shown that the amount of variation exists between different disciplines and therefore, wrongly (or at least inaccurately) may mean that no one can refer to a single academic literacy or expound with serious erudition. 1

I disagree with the argument of Harwood and Hadley, and Hyland, and their supporters. Their arguments are frequently the result of trying to bring in, require, or request a single writing style be adopted for all disciplines. That is tantamount to legislating that every person eats chicken on Sundays at noon.

One style guide does not fit all disciplines nor does it complement all studies. In this regard, I am supported by all major groups. The American Psychological Association that notes its style guide is for publication of research in psychology, psychiatry and the sciences.2 The Modern Language Association recognizes that its style guide is created for literature and languages. This is the case with numerous other professional groups.3 There are numerous other writing style guides, each created to meet the need of a specific group,4 organization,5 news media,6, writers in general,7, communications,8 management groups9, reviews of literature,10 and other interests,11, including writing guidelines for the Internet.12  No single style guide for writing is applicable for every subject, field, or group / person.  While schools, colleges, and universities frequently select one style guide as its official manual, that does not necessarily mean it fits every subject matter, research project, or need.  Style guides are to be chosen based on what is investigated, research, and to what scholarly press it is to be submitted. The American Medical Association’s Manual for Authors & Editors: Editorial Style and Manuscript Preparation13 is inappropriate for any study on agronomics14 or environmental studies.15  The APA, MLA, or other style guides have never made the claim that their writing guidelines apply to all fields.  The style guide for writing an academic paper must fit the guidelines of the publication the academic writer will submit the paper.

 

Background       top

While academic writing consists of a number of text types and genres that are acceptable in different subject areas and fields of inquiry, what they have in common is the conduct of inquiry and quest for greater comprehensive knowledge over a narrow area that is a part of the conventions that academic writers traditionally follow.  This, however, has been a subject of numerous debates that have led to many verbal and written disagreements void of any respect for one another, as is so commonly found on the internet blog The Chronicle of Education.16

Leading among the nay-Sayers are those who insist on anonymity and take pseudonyms to hide themselves from public criticism, rejoinders, or questions; this is not professional and is more in keeping with the rants of children. What surprises me is that most of those in heated controversy are so thoroughly ashamed of themselves or are attempting, vainly, to not be discovered by colleagues, that they take up ludicrous pseudonyms rather than being proud of themselves and standing sentry for what they confess to be factual and necessary.  I have frequently been called an “ignoramus”—and worse—and had colleagues vent anger to my objections to such things as eliminating articles, arguing that verbs can be nouns and nouns can be verbs, etc. to the point they give praise that their children will never be my students—intoning that I am the “great destroyer” of modernizing education.

Study finds link between Facebook users and posts and low grades among students and faculty

Study finds link between Facebook users and posts and low grades among students and faculty

Poor investigation, research and academic writing habits are socially conditioned even within the academic environment.  Studies show that those students and faculty who use social media, especially Facebook earn lower grades and have a higher rate of rejection from academic journals and publishers than those who read, observe, converse, and think critically. The areas where there is the lowest rate of academic excellence and most investigators and researchers are denied publication following peer review is in the field of foreign languages, primarily as the foreign language teacher is inappropriately crossing over into areas where the teacher has no competence or training, and among teachers of foreign languages who are mixing idioms within the academic field of education. This occurs when most papers are oriented towards and envelop methodologies, didactics, and educational strategies rather than focusing on language learning problems, and topics on language, such as syntax, grammar, and writing (with spelling the most ignored facet).

Where I teach, in Perú, the Director of the School of Translation, Interpretation, and Foreign Languages has regularly informed me that there are many teachers in the School who resent being required to take any course for teachers since I do not “give high grades”. I countered, each time this issue rises from the cauldron of crafted pseudo-encouragements to elevate and inflate my grades, by saying that I never give grades. All students including teachers must earn their grades as long as I am the teacher.

After my apologia pro vita sua, I receive the most uncharitable “scoffs”. These utterances are flayed when I affirm that I will not change. I sincerely defend the value that harmony is created with reasoned debate when there are rules that some challenges are still enforced to give continuity to writing well.  This I noted in my book Business English: from Grammar to Writing: (2007), p 9.), and the volume is still used in various schools despite cries for a more modern version that incorporates vulgar/street jargon, colloquialisms, redundancies, deadwood, and popular mispronouncements.17.

 

Antithesis (αντίθεση)       top

Many writers have called for conventions to be challenged, for example Pennycook (1997) and Ivanic (1998), while others suggest that some conventions should be maintained, for example Clark (1997, p136).18  These cries I muffle and disclaim, not because I am of advanced years, but I find that conventions exist to hold together groups of words, people, and thought. By definition, a convention is an agreement that stabilizes, strengthens, solidifies a unit, group, community and nation—to that end, Arabic (although it long predated Islam (العربية قبل الإسلام), holds together the religion defined in the Qur’an) is much like Latin (holding together early Christianity, especially within the Roman Catholic community) and serves as a guide, not a tyrant, to using language well. Conventions are rules, methods, practices established by use and grow when there is attention to detail that is required in academic writing, as the word, from its Latin origin, means “a coming together” as in a conference, convocation, congregation, or assembly of fraternal minds.

 

Antethesis       top

Writing in these forms or styles is usually, especially prior to the beginning of the twenty-first century, serious, and the papers and books presented have been intended for a critical, academically educated, and well- informed audience, based on closely investigated knowledge, before positing ideas or arguments. These papers, theses and dissertation have, especially in the past, circulated within the academic world (‘the academy’), but frequently in the past than in the present deteriorating world of academe the academic writer has and still may find an audience outside via journalism, speeches, pamphlets, blogs, and other media.19

 

Proto-thesis (sometimes called protocol thesis: πρωτόκολλο διατριβή)       top

True academic writing by serious scholars has an objective stance although today, especially in Latin America and other Third World nations it is a distant dreams while the profesors/profesoras author tracts that have little to do with their field of specialization, as with those who call themselves English teachers but do not concentrate on investigation, research and publication of material that enables students to master language, but instead devote themselves to investigation, writing, and a paucity of publications on the methodologies, didactics and pedagogies that belong to the field of education—and seek permission from the directors of investigation for authorization and occasionally compensation to further their interests. This abrogation clearly understates the significance of the topic, and is organized with semi-adequate detail so that other scholars may, and frequently so, try to replicate the results. Strong papers are not overly general and correctly use formal academic rhetoric.

The problem here, especially in Perú, is that few teachers in Latin America and other Third World nations do not know how to rifle in on a specific issue, attempt to investigate and research not only a too broad topic but frequently try to rewrite the history of the world. This was best illustrated by one teacher who complained that he received no support for his determined involvement in creating a major opus on Translation and Interpretation (on which there are thousands of books written by numerous authors). A second incident initiated by another young academic occurred when she told me that she wanted to write on how children can remember what they read (again, there are countless books on this subject).

 

Synthesis (σύνθεση)       top

When I suggested to my students that they focus on narrower topics, such as investigating and researching how four-year-olds can retain the essence of the subject by mastering primary English words and their meanings, I was informed that such an exercise was too primitive. The students, especially in Perú, are seldom above the primitive state in the English language even at the university level, as few colegios (primary and secondary schools) offer more than one hour one day a week to the “study” of the English language—and that is the reason no one learns. Each teacher (the meaning of profesors/profesoras) was more inspired on the gifts of methodology than the mastery of subject matter. The problem, especially at this point, is that most contemporary writers do not know nor understand the nuances and refinements of research—that comes after investigation.20

Projected growth in academic and research in First World nations

Projected growth in academic and research in First World nations

While their is a decided and determined trend toward pushing research to its rightful place as the leader in a teacher’s career, the greatest problem for today’s academic writers is they are trying to popularize their articles, project details, books and other forms of literary presentations by filling it with jargon, colloquialism, and street language—thereby losing all credibility and denying future generations access to understanding the text.  While in the mid-twentieth century it was common to listen to music and read books that print or sing about “my chick” (USA)21 or “my bird” (UK).22 Only a few individuals in the twenty-first century understand that it is not a reference to a fowl but a vulgar/common word for a girl/female.  The same is true on more (for some) shocking words such as homosexual (it is not even invented/created before 1863) and has nothing to do with sexuality except in some early cases, and later in psychological journals, as it was a contrived word from two Latin words (homo + sexualis) meaning same gender.  It was not found in any bible (Torah, Prophets {the Old Testament}, New Testament, Qur’an/Koran, etc.) before 1946 in the New Revised Versions (NRV), and does not appear in the American Bible until 1973: New International Version or NIV) as the original word was feminine that meant seductive and perverse: an appellation for the wiles of women who were the descendants of Lilith. Homosexual was not used in psychology until 1892, and then in the English translation of Krafft-Ebing’s Psychopathia sexualis: it is a reference work.23

 

Reiteration of Rubric:  Reality of Academic Writing       top

Academic writing is “plain” but precise, concrete, complete, and definitive while spelling out all words (not incorporating contracts that can be distracting, such as what’s that without context can be understood as watts; Ide, 2010, p 84, 87, 115-117), and defining all words that may be misconstrued.  At the same time, writing, as Robert Boyle (Boyle, p34) emphasized, must not bore the reader with a dull, unvarnished, flat and fatiguing style—it is not an elementary word book.24   What is critical in scientific and academic writing, universally, is that the reader understands, and tense, person, case, and so forth (the rules of composition) must be rigidly followed to meet a specific journal’s requirement: Mathematics requires the present tense,25 History requires the passive, and so forth. The same is true for authors and translators of scientific texts depending on the topic and science, according to the nation or zone the publisher releases findings.26

Sample of academic research writing

Sample of academic research writing

Universally, acknowledgably, encompassing all academic fields and disciplines, the most critical issue in academic writing is credibility and the submission of the completed work along with tangible evidence of investigation and its results, research and the findings of the research, original text along with the author’s translation and a detail of how the translation was achieved (computerized translations are only valuable if the translation reflects computerized digitization that preserves the intellectual content and intellectual property rights of items in a manner that facilitates and promotes a variety of uses including digitization of collections of many great research libraries,27 such as the University of Michigan University Library’s digital collections.28 Misconduct in academic investigation, research and writing, is not tolerated in most First World nations and any complaint is investigated thoroughly; plagiarism is a federal crime that carries with it, in select cases, the possibility of 130 years to life in prison. The Office of Public Health Services (PHS) provided no less than $30 billion in health research and development, and there

 

Peer review       top

All academic writing for academic journals and presses are required to undergo stringent peer review (a term that was first used in 1969) that is the evaluation of the work by at least one (or more) professionals who have a distinct record of similar competence in the field of the text submitted.  The purpose of peer review is to maintain and elevate standards of quality of investigation and research, assure that the work is ethical (Ide, 2010, p 32-38), improve performance of collection and composition of material and analyses, and provide credibility to the work and to the author’s ability to undergo the work and prepare an academic paper.  This is used to determine any academic paper’s suitability for publication and valuate its content for endorsement by an academic discipline and / or community.

Scientific peer review process

Scientific peer review process

While peer review is deemed critical in the field of medicine and select sciences (especially in the psychological and psychiatric sciences, leading the American Psychological Association to create its own writing style manual (APA), it is becoming increasingly more called for in the areas of environmental and ecological studies, translation and interpretation of documents, foreign language and interpretation, and literature (the last three generally using MLA style guidelines), and so forth.  Not every work that is submitted to a college (a group of people knowledgeable in the area of the paper’s concentration) is accepted; many times it is accepted conditionally, requiring that revisions be made, other sources are cited, or conclusions confirmed by submitting actual data to the committee and / or incorporating all confirmable and verifiable sources to the committee for testing and authenticating. The committee sitting on a peer review panel must be experts in their field (that is, usually, narrowly defined), who are considered and examined to be qualified and able to perform impartial reviews and issue a detailed address of reasons for acceptance or rejection. Publications that do not undergo (usually because they were not submitted) peer review are most generally regarded with suspicion by scholars and other professionals, as with the Regnerus report reputed to be a sociological study of family life among different groups.

Peer review effort

Peer review effort

Peer review is easily justified as those who seek funding for projects find that endowments and research supporters require an analysis of a proposal and require that the subject is both novel, substantial, and can be influential.  Suggested projects such as investigating why children do not retain information read seldom are funded as such studies exist in the thousands and have been done by numerous senior researchers who are required to hold at least one doctorate in the field—and then the researchers must show how his/her/their new study will embellish, enhance, or exceed the research and writing of previous scholars on the same subject.  At the same time, it is essential that the work be novel: that it is a break with past thought and expression, and propose a totally different (not a partial advancement and be sustained by previous works that have become classic or lie outside of the writer(s) field; for example, to propose to do a study on a topic concerning the English language, it cannot use studies that are oriented to education, including the education of English as a vehicle).  The reason for this is the clarion call for a diversity of opinion and not a reiteration of past publications by other professionals.  A single editor or assessor is never expected to be sufficiently an expert in all areas covered in a single journal, thus necessitating a plurality of people to sit in judgment of a project or paper.29

Reviewers cannot be known to the author(s) to discourage cronyism, and are thus selected and kept anonymous to insure the reviewers’ independence and critical assertation of the project; materials presented to support and justify it, and conclusions drawn.  One of the strongest methods of achieving a truly unique and distinct contribution to the literature on the topic that is the subject of the writer is to request an adversarial review. Adversarial reviews are common for arguments of law, or select proposals that are controversial or common.30

 

Adversarial Reviews       top

Adversarial reviews are most common in legal issues or statements that can be heatedly debated.  The benefit of this review is that it requires all parties involved (from the writer to the reviewer(s) that sit in judgment on an article) have solid, reliable, provable, unbiased fact to support their judgment.  This form of review is seldom used in issues of theology since no belief can be proven, including its deity or deities, commandments or canons, as all of that is seen as speculative and internal to the individual.  In the area of religion, all that can be reviewed adversarially is the actual dating of an individual apologist (defender), a document (usually through carbon dating), or textual criticism: for example, does the text in a holy writ actually match the period it claims to cover, or are the words and sentence construction from a different era or epoch.  Does any commentary or story in the text have parallels in other cultures, such as the Great Flood is found in ancient Chinese arguments over mathematics, early aboriginal legends of councils weighing causes and cases in the Americas, in Sumeria, Samaria, Egypt, and so forth being frequently associated with an Inquisition, that leads to an antethesis as well as an antithesis that can limit its acceptability; similar case includes a detailed knowledge of a text and related texts both outside of and within the text questions, as with the claim that Allah is a singular god, but within Koran 31 Allah had three daughters: AI-Lat, AI-‘Uzza, and Manat, with one of the daughters being the goddess of the moon and love (Venus who demanded human and animal sacrifices, was known as the Morning and Evening Star as a goddess of love and war; Uzza was recorded in the fourth century by (St.) Epiphanius who called her the mother of Dusares and referred to her as a young girl who would give birth to a crucified male god; she is found in the fifth century CE writings by Isaac of Antioch and her religion spread rapidly throughout all of Arabia and was especially venerated at Mecca with a sanctuary in a valley on the road to Mecca that was composed of three acacia trees that were referred to as the trees of the three gods).32  This requires that when translation are made, that the original language is presented / published in full so that scholars fluent in that language can verify the accuracy of the translation.33  The greatest challenge in teaching translation, interpretation, investigation, research, critical thinking and academic writing in Perú is the language itself, as many Spanish words have two or multiple meanings, unlike English (in most cases). For example: Investigar is understood as both investigation and research, but in academic English, each word is separate with research following investigation of a fact, incident, autograph, or other tangible element, as Umberto Eco presented in his Name of the Rose when William of Baskerville found a shoe imprint in the snow and began his quest to find the owner of that shoe that imprinted its autograph on the slope to the tower.  The same is true with the word prestar that means both borrow and lend, or ganar that can be translated both as earn and win.

 

Meeting the challenge in mastering the English language       top

The biggest challenge to academic writing is to have the author not only present material accurately and fully, but engage the reader to look beyond the words that are written to see a far greater picture using critical thought.  To this end I challenged my class of Teachers for whom I was laboring to teach basic principles of investigation, research, and interpretation by writing on the white board the following sentence:

Go upstairs to the green bedroom next to the yellow bathroom and bring me the red shirt with the green collar after removing the female cat from sitting on it.

It was a simple exercise in critical thinking. It required knowledge of word order in English, analysis of content, and critical thinking as to what was written compared to what should be deciphered or determined intellectually.  The exercise was futile, with none of the four students in a class that was mandated by the university and a notice sent out to the teachers that their attendance and participation was mandatory being able to analyze and understand the sentence.  Based on English, the teachers should have known that no sentence can begin without a member of the noun family initiating the writing.  Here is the answer:

{(All sentences must begin with a noun or a member of the noun family that could be an article such as A plus a verb: boy, or everyone, etc.) You (or someone by name or by title)} go (verb) upstairs (adverb) to (preposition of place) the (article) bedroom (noun) next to (preposition of place) the (article) yellow bathroom (compound noun; the indirect object) and (conjunction separating two clauses) bring (verb) me (pronoun; objective case: the one who receives) the (article, used as an adjective determiner) red shirt (compound noun) with (preposition) the (adjective determiner) green collar (adjective: compound collective) after (preposition) removing (gerund) the (article used as an adjectival noun) female (adjective) cat (noun) from (preposition of place) sitting (gerund) on (preposition) it (pronoun serving as the direct object).

The analysis is equally simple. The subject (any pronoun or proper noun) is to go upstairs until the subject finds a green bedroom next to a yellow bathroom.  If the green bedroom next to a yellow bathroom is not on the second floor the subject must continue to go upstairs until the subject finds a green bedroom next to a yellow bathroom where there is a red shirt with a green collar is found with a female cat sitting on it. If there is a red shirt but it has a red collar or any other color of a collar, the subject must continue to go upstairs until the subject finds all of the criteria such as a green bedroom next to a yellow bathroom that has a red shirt with a green collar; if there is no female cat (the subject must ascertain the gender of the cat, most likely by picking up the cat and looking at the genitals), then the subject must continue to climb the stairs until the subject finds the green bedroom next to a yellow bathroom in which there is a red shirt with a green collar and has a female cat sitting on the shirt. Once the requested shirt is found and all conditions are met, the subject must return with the red shirt with the green collar to me and offer the shirt to me.  The purpose of this exercise, using critical thinking, is to note that the house has at least one extra floor, but only by climbing the stairs will the subject know how many floors exist before finding the red shirt with the green collar.  What is not given is whether or not there are other floors, as the subject has no reason to climb additional stairs since the required shirt was discovered and returned to me.  The house may have had 100 floors (more or less), but that is not relevant once all criteria are met; it becomes relevant only when the rubrics of the hypothesis are modified or a new question or requirement is made.

This exercise requires critical thinking, mastery of the English language: word order, word choice, vocabulary, grammar, and all other aspects.  Teachers of English must be able to determine not only the word order, the relevance of the sentence, but be able to critically think of the message that is not explicitly detailed or given.  Investigation and research are of little value if the writer cannot write beyond what is read, heard, or seen, as the true academic writer makes conjectures and assumptions based on what exists and projects them into a new theory that can be challenged, augmented, strengthened or rejected, but in each case further the advent of knowledge and an epiphany of mastering material.34

 

Academic Writing Requirements       top

Scope of writing requirements

Scope of writing requirements

When an investigator / researcher has completed his / her study and has assembled statistics, reports, antecedents, anticedents and brought all together, the task seem difficult at first, but should not be viewed in that light.  Academic writing, like any good writing must have (1) an abstract that is written after the paper is composed; (2) an introduction that details what the problem was that was investigated and research, and the tools used in the investigation process, and what resources were read, studied, and classified in the research process; (3) the presentation of all earlier records—the antecedents to the investigation and research—concerning, discovering, developing and expressing findings and analysis of the material; (4) the recognition and response to anticedents—those arguments that reject other works and go contrary in opposition to the investigator(s) /researcher(s) current review; (5) the drawing together—the synthesis—of all arguments both antithetical and supportive—of all existing evidence; (6) the statement of the current writer(s) as to their discoveries and conclusions; (6) reasoned responses to all oppositional points and arguments; (7) iteration in both voice and print about why the current study is valid; (8) conclusion and (9) summary of research, analysis; (10) detailed bibliography of the principle works used: primary, secondary, tertiary; (10) and recommendations for what should still be investigated, researched, and how the finding(s) of the author can be successfully used for the benefit of all people (the issue of ethics).35  The caveat, in all academic writing, is plagiarism. Plagiarism is never to be tolerated, and peer reviewers must spot it instantly and reject the entire paper if the theft of intellectual property is extensive, or return it to the writer if the plagiarism is minimal with detailed notes on where the plagiarized parts, graphs, and so forth were found, and a demand that they be corrected, attributed, and so forth, or clearly state that the paper must not be resubmitted to the panel for further consideration.36

 

Summary       top

Academic writing must focus on a single issue.  It must investigate any reason to pursue research about the apparent problem.  Investigation includes interviews, survey of the scene, and all detective work.  Research records, reads existing texts and documents to ascertain whether or not there is justification for an indepth study of an issue that could lead to a contribution to the world’s (or a community, educational institute, or other groups) knowledge and betterment.  At the same time, published research must be available to all who request it to verify the findings of the researcher.  Records must be kept, bibliographies compiled, and the final paper must pass peer review.

 

Recommendations       top

Scholarly papers must use correct grammar, spelling, and all attributes of good English (or the language of the paper presented), without recourse to vulgar (street) idioms or temporary / cursory words.  It is essential that those who engage in investigation and research are thoroughly committed to writing well, concisely, completely, and factually–that all sources (favorable and unfavorable) to the research project be investigated and read.  If evidence points to an error in the thesis or rejects the thesis, the researcher must abandon the investigative and research project so as not to waste time, money, or talent on that which has no value.

Before seeking any financial or other support from any benefactor of academic institution, the academic must assemble all material that exists to show that the research is not only plausible and viable, but that the materials do not show bias or are based on limited samplings. All research must encompass all facets, and the researcher must trace the topic backward in time to determine if the investigation and research has been done–and if it has, to acknowledge it an give credit where due–and then show why his or her proposal will add to the literature and knowledge of those who come after the researcher.  To consult only one language and its publications on a universal topic is a form of fraud and must be avoided.

 

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Langer, L. (2002). Judicial Review in State Supreme Courts: A Comparative Study. Albany, NY: University of New York Press.

LaRocque, P. (2003). The Book on Writing: the Ultimate Guide to Writing Well. Oak Park, IL: Marion Street Press.

Lastimosa, P. L.; Llemit, N. V. (1994). Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development. (Los Banos, Laguna): Philippine Council of Agriculture, Forestry, and Natural Resources Research and Development, Department of Science and Technology.

Lebeaux, D. (2000). Language Acquisition and the Form of the Grammar. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamin.

Lester, J. D. (2007). Principles of Writing Research Papers. New York, NY: Penguin Academics: Pearson/Longman.

L’Homond, C. F. (1799). Elémens de la grammaire françoise… Paris, France: Colas, Année VII.

Liu, J; Pysarchick, D.T.; Taylor, W. W. (2002). “Peer Review in the Classroom.” BioScience 52 (9):824.

Ludwick R; Dieckman B.C.; Herdtner S; Dugan M; Roche M. (November–December 1998). “Documenting the scholarship of clinical teaching through peer review”. Nurse Educator. 23 (6): 17–20.

Nadel, L. (2005). Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Chichester, West Sussex, UK; Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

Neville, C. (2010). The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism. Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.

Northey, M.; Knight, D. B. (2001). Making Sense: A Student’s Guide to Research and Writing: Geography & Environmental Sciences. Don Mills, Ontario, Canada: Oxford University Press.

Oermann, M. & Ziolkowski, L. (2002). “Accuracy of references in three critical care nursing journals.” Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing 17 (2), 78-83.

Pennycook, A. (1997). “Vulgar pragmatism, critical pragmatism, and EAP.” English for Specific Purposes16 (4), 253–269.

Perrin, R. (2007). Pocket Guide to APA Style. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Peter, H. W. G.  (1911). Wahrheit und kunst, geschichtschreibung und plagiat im klassischen altertum. Leipzig, Deutschland: G. G. Teubner.

Reep, D. C.; Sharp, H. M. (1999). The Educator’s Writing Handbook. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Seve, A. (1960). Ortho: dictionnaire orthographique et grammatical: orthographe d’usage (32,000 mots de vocabulaire), règles usuelles de grammaire, de syntaxe, conventions diverses à l’intention de tous ceux don’t le métier est d’écrire… Chambéry, France: Edsco.

Shuttleworth, M; Blakstad, O. (2010). How to Write a Research Paper: an Introduction to Academic Writing. Lexington, KY: Oskar Blakstad and Experiment-Resources.

Sims, G.K. (1989). “Student Peer Review in the Classroom: A Teaching and Grading Tool” Journal of Agronomic Education. 18: 105-108.

Smith, T. (2010). Research Writing: Papers, Theses & Dissertations. (Boca Raton, FL): BarCharts, Inc.

Sohl, C.; Tomanen, M. (n.d.)  Ār studenters syn på plagiering och otillatet samarbete kulturellt betingad? (Stockholm, Sweden).

Stout, R. (1997). Das Plagiat Kriminalroman. München, Deutschland: Goldmann.

Thorne, Sara (1997). Mastering Advanced English Language. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan.

Thorup, L. (2003). Rå dog vink om afskrift og plagiat ved projektarbejde på ktx. Københaven, Danmark.

Vega Moreno, R. (2007). Creativity and Convention: the Pragmatics of Everyday Figurative Speech. Amsterdam, Netherlands; Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamin Publisher.

Weigand, Edda (2003). Sprache als Dialog: Sprechakttaxonomie und kommunikative Grammatik. Berlin, Deutschland: De Gruyter.

Ufnalska S. (2010). “Major Editorial Guidelines need to be Translated and Popularized”. European Science Editing 36(2): 40-41.

Ufnalska S.B. (2011). “EASE Guidelines Help Editors and Scientists save Time”. Science Editor 34(4):e10.

United States. Department of Health and Human Services. Office of the Secretary. (1987). Communications Style Guidelines. Washington, DC: Office of the Secretary, Dept. of Health and Human Services.

Walsh, E.; Rooney, M.; Appleby, L.; Wilkinson, G. (2000). “Open Peer Review: a Randomised Controlled Trial” British Journal of Psychiatry. 176 (1): 47-51.

Wilson, K; Wauson, J. (2011). The AMA Handbook of Business Documents: Guidelines and Sample Documents that Make Business Writing Easy. New York, NY: American Management Association.

Zegarra, L. E. (2006). Las ceremonias del templo: plagio Masónico o revelación. (Lima, PerúL ADE-Peru). Schultze, E., et al. (1959). Plagiat. Frankfurt a.M., Deutschland: F. Vahlen.  Peter, H. W. G.  (1911).

Zobel, J. (2004). Writing for Computer Science. London, UK: Springer.

 

Footnotes
top

  1. Harwood, N. & Hadley, G. (2004). “Demystifying Institutional Practices: Critical Pragmatism and the Teaching of Academic Writing.” English for Specific Purposes 23 (4), 355-377. Hyland, K. (2004). Disciplinary Discourse: Social Interactions in Academic Writing. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
  2. American Psychological Association (2009). Mastering APA Style: Student’s Workbook and Training Guide. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. American Psychological Association (2007). APA Style Guide to Electronic References. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Perrin, R. (2007). Pocket Guide to APA Style. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Amato, C. J. (2002). The World’s Easiest Guide to Using the APA: a User-friendly Manual for Formatting Research Papers according to the American Psychological Association Style Guide. Corona, CA: Stargazer Publications.
  3. Gibaldi, J. (2008). MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America. Gibaldi, Joseph; Modern Language Association of America (2003). MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America.
  4. Zobel, J. (2004). Writing for Computer Science. London, UK: Springer.
  5. Blicq, R. (1982). Guidelines for Report Writers: a Complete manual for on-the-job Report Writing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.  Reep, D. C.; Sharp, H. M. (1999). The Educator’s Writing Handbook. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
  6. Jordan, Lewis (1976). The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage: a Desk Book of Guidelines for Writers and Editors. New York, NY: Quadrangle/New York Times Book Co.
  7. LaRocque, P. (2003). The Book on Writing: the Ultimate Guide to Writing Well. Oak Park, IL: Marion Street Press.
  8. United States. Department of Health and Human Services. Office of the Secretary. (1987). Communications Style Guidelines. Washington, DC: Office of the Secretary, Dept. of Health and Human Services.
  9. Wilson, K; Wauson, J. (2011). The AMA Handbook of Business Documents: Guidelines and Sample Documents that Make Business Writing Easy. New York, NY: American Management Association.
  10. Galvan, J. L. (1999). Writing Literature Reviews: a Guide for Students of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Los Angeles, CA.
  11. Hart, J. (2011). Storycraft: the Complete Guide to Writing Narrative Nonfiction. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Adams, V. I. (2008). Guidelines for Reports by Autopsy Pathologists. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. Arthur, D. (1997). The Complete Human Resources Writing Guide. New York, NY: American Management Association.
  12. Felder, L. (2012). Writing for the Web: Creating Compelling Web Content Using Words, Pictures, and Sound. Berkeley, CA: New Riders.
  13. Barclay, W. R.; Southgate, M. T.; Mayo, R. W. (1981). Manual for Authors & Editors: Editorial Style & Manuscript Preparation. Los Altos, CA: Lange Medical Publications.
  14. Lastimosa, P. L.; Llemit, N. V. (1994). Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development. (Los Banos, Laguna): Philippine Council of Agriculture, Forestry, and Natural Resources Research and Development, Department of Science and Technology.
  15. Northey, M.; Knight, D. B. (2001). Making Sense: A Student’s Guide to Research and Writing: Geography & Environmental Sciences. Don Mills, Ontario, Canada: Oxford University Press.
  16. http://chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/2013/03/13/quite/. http://chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/2013/02/20/being-an-adverb/.
  17. Ide (2002) p 8, 26-66, 137
  18. Pennycook, A. (1997). “Vulgar pragmatism, critical pragmatism, and EAP.” English for Specific Purposes 16 (4), 253–269. Ivanic, R. (1998). Writing and identity: The discoursal construction of identity in academic writing. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Ide, A. F. (2007). From Business English: from Grammar to Writing. Dallas, TX and Até, Perú: Monument Press. Cp. Greene, Stuart. “Argument as Conversation: The Role of Inquiry in Writing a Researched Argument”, a PowerPoint presentation is at http://www.slideshare.net/heatherdwayne/enc1102-greene; text is available at http://www.scribd.com/doc/116501584/Stewart-Greene-Argument-as-Conversation
  19. Amorós Negre, C.; Verde Ruiz, S. (2012). Sobre los principios pragmático-discursivos en la descripción gramatical del español. Cádez: Universidad de Cádiz: Servicio de Publicaciones. Chapman, S.; Routledge, C. (2009). Key Ideas in Linguistics and the Philosophy of Language. Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press. Seve, A. (1960). Ortho: dictionnaire orthographique et grammatical: orthographe d’usage (32,000 mots de vocabulaire), règles usuelles de grammaire, de syntaxe, conventions diverses à l’intention de tous ceux don’t le métier est d’écrire… Chambéry, France: Edsco.  Vega Moreno, R. (2007). Creativity and Convention: the Pragmatics of Everyday Figurative Speech. Amsterdam, Netherlands; Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamin Publisher. Lebeaux, D. (2000). Language Acquisition and the Form of the Grammar. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamin. L’Homond, C. F. (1799). Elémens de la grammaire françoise… Paris, France: Colas, Année VII. Weigand, Edda (2003). Sprache als Dialog: Sprechakttaxonomie und kommunikative Grammatik. Berlin, Deutschland: De Gruyter.
  20. Booth, W. C.; Columb, G. G. Colomb; Williams, W. J. (2008). The Craft of Research, 3d ed.; Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  21. http://onlineslangdictionary.com/meaning-definition-of/chick, a slang word most frequently used for a female, but it is also used in colloquial speech for a boyfriend or “tempting” (sexy) male. It is never appropriate in academic English.
  22. http://onlineslangdictionary.com/meaning-definition-of/bird.  “Bird” is slang and it is never acceptable in academic English.
  23. von Krafft-Ebing, R.; Chaddock, C.G. trans. (1892). Psychopathia sexualis: with Especial Reference to Contrary Sexual Instinct: A Medico/Legal Study. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis.
  24. Harmon, J.E.; Gross, A.G. (2007). “On Early English Scientific Writing,” The Scientific Literature. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago. 312 p. Day, R.; Sakaduski, N. (2011). Scientific English: A Guide for Scientists and Other Professionals, 3rd ed. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood.
  25. Higham, N. J. (1998).  Handbook of Writing for the Mathematical Sciences. Philadelphia: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. p. 56.
  26. Ufnalska S.B. (2011). “EASE Guidelines Help Editors and Scientists save Time”. Science Editor 34(4):e10. Cf. Ufnalska S. (2010). “Major Editorial Guidelines need to be Translated and Popularized”. European Science Editing 36(2): 40-41.
  27. Anonymous  (2013). Technical Translations. Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce, Office of Technical Services. Prepared for publication by H(ewlitt)P(ackard).
  28. http://www.lib.umich.edu. In the area of writing and using expert evidence, consult: Weder, W. (1944). Die Stellung der Schriftexpertise und des Schriftexperten im Strafprozess. Unpublished doctoral dissertation: Universitat Zurich; Brugg, Schweiz: Effingerhof.
  29. This is especially true in medical and scientific papers, as discussed by Ludwick R; Dieckman B.C.; Herdtner S; Dugan M; Roche M. (November–December 1998). “Documenting the scholarship of clinical teaching through peer review”. Nurse Educator. 23 (6): 17–20, in which the Department of Nursing at Kent State University, Ohio, implemented a faculty-driven, voluntary program for peer review of clinical teaching. Reviewers make mistakes, and writers can be equally culpable, read: Oermann, M. & Ziolkowski, L. (2002). Accuracy of references in three critical care nursing journals. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing 17 (2), 78-83. Cp. Haynes R.B.; Cotoi C; Holland J; et al. (2006). “Second-order peer review of the medical literature for clinical practitioners”. JAMA  (Journal of the American Medical Association) 295 (15): 1801–8. For other disciplines, consider Sims, G.K. (1989). “Student Peer Review in the Classroom: A Teaching and Grading Tool” Journal of Agronomic Education. 18: 105-108 and a later report by Liu, J; Pysarchick, D.T.; Taylor, W. W. (2002). “Peer Review in the Classroom.” BioScience 52 (9):824. The issue of whether or not peer review should be “open” (the reviewers known), or “closed” (reviewers remain anonymous) is the subject of Walsh, E.; Rooney, M.; Appleby, L.; Wilkinson, G. (2000). “Open Peer Review: a Randomised Controlled Trial” British Journal of Psychiatry. 176 (1): 47-51.
  30. Langer, L. (2002). Judicial Review in State Supreme Courts: A Comparative Study. Albany, NY: University of New York Press.  Nadel, L. (2005). Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Chichester, West Sussex, UK; Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley. On methodology of authentication, read the unpublished thesis by Izabachène, Malika; Pointcheval, D. (2009). L’anonymat dans les protocoles cryptographiques. Paris, France, making a serious case for anonymity: Enfin, nous nous consacrons aux protocoles d’échange de clé à base de mot de passe où un client désire établir une clé de session authentifiée avec un serveur, mais de manière anonyme. Nous considérons le scénario à deux et trois parties, et proposons une application de notre nouvelle définition d’anonymat.
  31. Sura 53:19-20.
  32. Arnold, T. W.; Guillaume, A (1931, 1956 printing). The Legacy of Islam. London, UK: Oxford University Press. P.6-7; cp. Muhammad bin Jarir al-Tabari (c. 838-923 CE, 224-310 AH), Annals 1.1192-1193 in د بن جرير بن يزيد الطبري (Tabari) تاريخ الرسل والملوك  (Popularly translated as Annals, but should be translated as History of the Prophets and Kings) that was intended to be a universal history from the Creation to the year 915 CE. Leiden: Brill: VI: 108-109, in Arabic. On the ancient Chinese mathematics reviews, watch http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9PlHHBbDXoI.
  33. This was a learning experience for me, as when I taught the seventh cycle students a course in Scientific and Technical Translation, and gave them a text in Spanish about Galileo, they not only were void of the ability of accurate translation from Spanish to English, but worse, they showed no knowledge of history: they had Galileo claiming that the sun revolved around the water planet: Earth. This was furthered by a second examination requiring a translation from English into Spanish, and the class failed miserably both in their knowledge of English and their inability to translate it into their own Castellaño language, yet the all planned to be teachers of English—and language none studied with any diligence or interest as they had had twelve years of public school where the teachers were not only incompetent in English but merely read a poorly written textbook and could not answer any questions; in Perú it is customary and normal procedure for English to be taught between 50 minutes to 100 minutes on one day, once a week, and the examination were marginally constructed. Despite this, I had one student who I required to take my remedial primary (below basic) English course, and when asked why he said he wanted to teach English for his matriculation essay, he wrote that he wanted to earn a minimum of S/.700 a week—whereas the average laborer working ten to sixteen hours a day, six days a week is lucky to earn S/.800.  The tragedy is those who accelerate to the eighth cycle and actually write a thesis, they have neither the training nor the ability to produce anything of quality, and one thesis I chaired I refused to sign, while other teachers sign off on falsified (most is plagiarized) and abysmal work. Perú ranks at the bottom of the world for education, along with Haiti. Video at http://www.panamericana.pe/panorama/cultura/129192-cero-educacion-alarmante-nivel-estudiantes-peruanos; cf.  http://www.transparency.org/cpi2011/. Read: http://www.arthuride.com/#/education-in-peru-2013/.
  34. Burton, S.H.; Humphries, J.A. (1992). Mastering English Language. Houndmills, UK: Macmillan. Burton, S. H. (1984). Mastering English Grammar. London, UK: Macmillan. Thorne, Sara (1997). Mastering Advanced English Language. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan. Bennie, M. (1998). Mastering Business English: How to Improve Your Business Communication Skills. Plymouth, UK: How To Books.  Ide, A. Business English: from Grammar to Writing. Até, Peru. Elbow, P. (1981). Writing with Power: Techniques for Mastering the Writing Process. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  35. Shuttleworth, M; Blakstad, O. (2010). How to Write a Research Paper: an Introduction to Academic Writing. Lexington, KY: Oskar Blakstad and Experiment-Resources. Lester, J. D. (2007). Principles of Writing Research Papers. New York, NY: Penguin Academics: Pearson/Longman. Jiang, S. (n.d.). English Academic Writing and Reading: Case Studies of Taiwanese Graduate Students’ Second Language Research Paper Composing (sic) in an American University. Unpublished dissertation (Ed.D.).  Indianapolis, IN: University of Indiana. Behrens, L.; Rosen, L. J. (2008). Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. New  York, NY: Pearson Longman. Smith, T. (2010). Research Writing: Papers, Theses & Dissertations. (Boca Raton, FL): BarCharts, Inc.  Behrens, L.; Rosen, L. J. (2011). Sequence for Academic Writing, Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide. New York, NY: Longman Pub. Group.
  36. Zegarra, L. E. (2006). Las ceremonias del templo: plagio Masónico o revelación. (Lima, PerúL ADE-Peru). Schultze, E., et al. (1959). Plagiat. Frankfurt a.M., Deutschland: F. Vahlen.  Peter, H. W. G.  (1911). Wahrheit und kunst, geschichtschreibung und plagiat im klassischen altertum. Leipzig, Deutschland: G. G. Teubner. Danmark. Kulturministeriet (2006). Got citatskik og plagiat i tekster: vejledende retningslinjer. (Københaven, Danmark): Kultuministeriet. Stout, R. (1997). Das Plagiat Kriminalroman. München, Deutschland: Goldmann. Thorup, L. (2003). Rå dog vink om afskrift og plagiat ved projektarbejde på ktx. Københaven, Danmark. Cvetkovic, V. B. (2004). The Plagiarism Plague: a Resource Guide and CD-ROM tutorial for educators and librarians. New York, NY: Neal-Schuman Publishers. Neville, C. (2010). The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism. Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press. Plagiarism occurs in all fields, including general sciences: Sohl, C.; Tomanen, M. (n.d.)  Ār studenters syn på plagiering och otillatet samarbete kulturellt betingad? (Stockholm, Sweden).

4 comments to Academic Writing for Publication

  • Sami Swan Thompson  says:

    I thoroughly enjoyed this article. It is, in fact, one of my favorites so far. Your example of critical thinking put forth for the teachers was exceptionally clear and well stated.

    After reading the exercise through carefully, I wondered how they could possibly NOT come to the obvious conclusion. Then, of course, I remembered that their arrogance has provided a constant roadblock to understanding the bones of the English language. Scrabbling up some English slang and tossing it together with poor spelling and complete lack of understanding of grammatical structure is something I’d expect from a uneducated cabdriver or street vendor – but never from someone masquerading as an educator in any country.

    Peru is hamstringing itself with these dangerous practices. Even more horrifying, I see similar behavior here in the United States, especially in the wake of the Tea Party ignorance. I’ve found generally that the more ignorant the person, the more hostile he tends to be toward education and enlightenment. I hope to see you back here in Texas soon, Art. Students desperately need you.

  • Luke  says:

    Thanks for the well done post! As a graduate student at UNO it’s important to see people know how to properly research their thoughts and ideas.

  • angel gomez uriarte  says:

    thank you very much for your article . It is a good example of dedication and research. Your ideas about academic writing are concise , as you tell in your article : writing not only involve words , but investigation and research , and this what teachers in Peru poorly have. Also , you mentioned that there are several styles of writing,such as: medical , psychological or scientific writing , so teachers and student have to understand that there is not one guide of how to write , but guides that provides help in the different fields of knowledge. on the other hand , a good writing has to have a good spelling and grammar , but not only that , also is important to have in mind that a good writing involves four important aspects that important for writing well: Correctly, cogently, Carefully and completely . thank you so much for your work as a teacher and investigator .
    BEST WISHES

  • angel gomez uriarte  says:

    I have some questions teacher Arthur Ide:

    how can I improve my academic writing?
    what are the steps for doing a good writing? ( points that you have not mentioned in this article , please)

    how can I memorize vocabulary?

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