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Fujimoris Fracturing Fragile Peru

A daughter of the notorious, thief, drug pusher, convicted of human rights abuser,1 former dictator and currently imprisoned Alberto Fujimori, Keiko Fujimori has conducted a political career filled with do-nothing activities and absences. Keiko, as a presidential candidate in 2016, echoes her father’s tenure as president (1990 to 2000): despotic rule riddled with corruption, theft from the national treasury, extortion, torture and other human rights abuses. Linking her campaign to her father’s “achievements,” she has justifiably sparked fears that if elected she would replicate the worst of the Fujimori dictatorship. Even so, Keiko continues to gain support as she hands out bags of rice to the impoverished masses starving in Peru. They are willing to exchange their vote for a mouthful of food. Now they count on more rice as Keiko is in a runoff for the presidency.

 

Keiko as her father's First Lady

Keiko as her father’s First Lady

To understand Keiko, a person must first understand her father. Far from any semblance of a democratic rule, Alberto shut down Congress and ruled, essentially, by decree.2 It is a path Keiko vows to imitate and augment as easily seen in her own congressional record on corruption and flagrant absenteeism, as a dismal do-nothing legislator who only collected an exorbitant paycheck.

 

Poverty and education in Peru.

Poverty and education in Peru.

To her credit, Keiko acknowledges that her father stole from the National Treasury (to put her sibling and herself through schools in the USA, noting education in Peru has never been of sufficient caliber to education or train Peruvians.).3 Alberto recognized that Peru’s educational system was worthless and want his children trained in a system better than that of Peru. Alberto’s recognition that the educational system in Peru was bargain basement and the students had little opportunity to excel or find jobs, led anyone with money to start any school, college of university. The most odious opportunist who came to the front to milk the people of their money was from the venal family of Acuñas: Cesar Acuña Peralta.

 

Cesar Acuña Peralta, the Fundador (founder) of UCV, and USS saw centers of learning as an untapped source for his own enrichment, and the students could serve as drones to work for his political aspirations if they had an incentive. This was the only reason for the establishment of the universities.

 

Cesar Acuña was determined to raise money for his (failed) 2016 bid for the presidency of Peru.4

 

Keiko and Montesino

Keiko and Montesino

Along with Intelligence Minister Vladimiro Montesinos, Alberto Fujimori personalized the government to their standard of autocracy. His administration’s 10-year rule featured defamation, extortion, lies and cynicism. Congress was shut down. All vestiges of democracy were swept away as Fujimori sold Peru’s economic interests, ore, timber and crops and fish production to foreign investors5 for pennies on the dollar. Along with Cesar Acuña’s son, Richard, who bought his seat in Peru’s unicameral congress with no experience in governing, Cesar Acuña destroyed the already impoverished and disintegrating education system that was turned over to profiteers by Alberto Fujimori. Little was said, and no protests came from the illiterate department heads, for they had to protect their own jobs. They were silent about the bludgeoned abortion of education on their campus. It was reminiscent of the non-existent education of their Fundador.

 

Acuna admits to copying his thesis.

Acuna admits to copying his thesis.

Cesar Acuña was exposed as a mass plagiarist in 2016. He copied and pasted together his master and doctoral theses thinking no one dared tell; bribes for silence were lavish and clandestine.6 Not only were the Fundador’s writings “copied”, but Cesar Acuña was exposed as fraudulently using the title Engineer7 after inventing the Universities of Senior Sipan (Universidad Señor de Sipán, initially located in Pimentel, Peru) and Cesar Vallejo (Universidad César Vallejo, headquartered in Trujillo, Peru).8 There is no effort at the local, provincial or national level to improve the crumbling education system especially by the Acuñas, except if it would help to pay for his presidential ambitions.9

 

Students who received failing grades had nothing to worry about. The grades were overturned by the administration. Many had received had its degrees from UCV for “services to the university.”10 Since most educational institutions use the International Baccalaureate program I was tasked with teaching the IB Programme at SENATI whose students were only interested in passing an exam to “get more money”–and laughed that they would forget what they studied as soon as the “promotion as announced.” The IB Progamme texts distressed me. This was especially true with the First Certificate of English program. It contained so many errors (e.g. beginning sentences with gerunds, and conjunctions, such as: “And he liked it. But she ran away” where a single word—such as an exclamatory “No!” was labeled a complete sentence, as with “But!”) but many schools bought into the IB nonsense–for the money. Peru schools that use IB, get a 50% kickback on charges for the program and purchase of textbooks typeset and printed in China. It is the reason for significant profits demanded by for-profit schools. 11 Government and corporate control of education was everywhere, and according to Julio Cotler and Romeo Grompone of the Institute of Peruvian Studies, it exemplified mafia-style characteristics. 12

 

Martha Chavez defended the assassination of Students by Fujimori's Grupo under Montesinos

Martha Chavez defended the assassination of Students by Fujimori’s Grupo Colina under Montesinos

The Fujimori-style of governance in the 1990s paved the way for two of the most controversial human rights crises in the region to occur—the massacres of Barrios Altos in 1991 and La Cantuta in 1992.13 Fujimori ordered the police-military death squad Grupo Colina to execute Shining Path members in Lima’s Barrios Altos neighborhood, and at the Universidad Nacional de Educación Enrique Guzmán y Valle, or La Cantuta, in the Chosica area. The two attacks resulted in the disappearances and deaths of more than 30 individuals including university members, women, and children. Fascists in Peru’s Congress, led by the nefarious and notorious Martha Chavez, and seconded by apologist Keiko Fujimori, applauded the slaughter of students and faculty and when there was an attempt by their parents and siblings to honor their memory, this vulture wanted to tear down the monument erected to their memory.14

 

Jurado Nacional Electoral

Jurado Nacional Electoral

The National Electoral Jury, or JNE (Jurado Nacional Electoral), began investigating Keiko’s campaign following allegations that she had been seen giving out monetary donations in the name of her candidacy.15  Videos have emerged showing Keiko handing out envelopes of money to buy votes.16 Keiko openly bought votes in 2011.17 She had no problem doing it again in 2016. This tactic was refined by her brother Kenji. The poor rallied behind him unconcerned that Kenji was embroiled in a massive drug scandal.18 Kenji, like his father Alberto, profited from the misery of teenagers making it easy to enter a life of addiction and crime.

 

Tantamount to ever-expanding police corruption in Peru, justice in Peru is commonly bought and sold to the highest bidder. Several jurists discounted the importance of Kenji’s criminal past or current investigation into drug smuggling and selling. They noted, “off the record”, that they would benefit economically if they overlook Kenji’s “indiscretions”—when Keiko took the presidency and returned to the autocratic rule of the minority to Peru. As Judge Castro commented, “With the promise of a rise in murders, political assassinations, drug smuggling and other crimes, our jobs are secured.” He promised to vote for Keiko.

 

Consummately, comprehensively corrupt the Jurado Especial Electoral (JEE), deeply indebted19 to the point of being owned by Fujimoristas, exonerated both Fujimoris to the delight of backers of a returned to dictatorship in Peru. Clearing Keiko of all charges, remembered as Alberto’s First Lady,20 gave strength to the JEE push to sway the election of Keiko who vowed she would pardon her father of all crimes against humanity and treason—and later backtracked and said, with a wink, she would not pardon Alberto.21

 

The peoples’ protests fell on deaf ears “as the people have not the means to convince us otherwise,” another member of the JEE remarked. The jurist, commenting that Keiko’s brother, Kenji, was delighted that the son of the imprisoned dictator “will have the force to vanquish all protestors” as occurred under Vladimiro Montesinos who oversaw the barbarity of Servicio de Inteligencia Nacional (acronym: SIN the secret service of spy network) in Peru.

 

Montesinos has been compared by many to el Doctor (Paul Joseph Goebbels)22 He was the architect of the pogrom to slaughter Jews and undesirables.23 y el Rasputín24 of the Fujimori regime similar to the Third Reich and Imperial Russia during the Romanov period in the first decades of the twentieth century. 25 He was ultimately sentenced to prison for suppressing and ultimately disbanding congress, committing voter fraud, theft from the national treasury,26 torture, assassination, organized terrorism,  having 30 assassin groups under his control, etc. Vladimiro Montesinos Torres was handed a maximum prison sentence to be served at the Naval Base in Callo in maximum security under marine watch.27

 

Keiko: woman of the people.

Keiko: a woman of the people?

Keiko remarked that these were trivial charges trumped up to discredit her father, and cast aspersions on her own candidacy. She styled her self as the friend of the common people. Keiko styled her self as compassionate and easily accessible to the common people who she would warmly welcome to visit her in the Presidential Palace. Most inost importantly Keiko vowed she would bring back Montesinos in her government who was keenly interested in the poor and struggling.28 She is seen as a reborn Isabel Báthory de Ecsed (in Hungarian: Báthory Erzsébet),29 by some Peruvian historians. They were in the minority in Peru, as to come out against Keiko or the Fujimori family: to do so could cost them their jobs. Free speech does not exist in Peru unless the speaker is independently wealthy and own a judge.

Sterilized women of Peru.

Sterilized women of Peru.

Keiko’s indifference to the common man and woman in Peru, is seen by her acceptance of the mass forced sterilization of more than 283,500 mountain women during her father’s dictatorship (the estimates run to over 300,000 as physicians had to meet quotas of those sterilized to be paid, The number of men castrated and by other means sterilized in the mountain range from 22,000 and higher. The statistics are not certain since it is considered shameful in Peru to admit to being sterilized (or even using birth control, that the churches denounce). Despite the evidence and protests of hundreds of thousands of victims who suffered under Fujimori, the totally corrupt Congress and Court system cleared the dictator of all charges—many of them receiving bribes and promises of advancement, with one Supreme Court justice, Eduardo Palacios, a provisional Supreme Court magistrate, selling his vote for $300.30

 

Acuna twitter on Montesinos

Acuna Twitter on Montesinos

One frequently ignored fact is Montesinos relationship with Cesar Acuña and the founding of UCV and USS, and the Acuña family.31 Montesinos assured Cesar Acuña would have a role in Keiko’s government. Furthermore, Montesinos promised that Acuña and his universities would not be investigated for corruption, the sale of degrees, and the worthlessness of teachers who only had a marginal knowledge of their subject field and relied heavily on pedagogy courses they took so that they appeared to be subject matter experts. Most of those with submarginal skills ended up teaching at UCV campuses, where Richard Acuña began his inept teaching stay. The for-profit universities have been cited as neither educational centers nor centers of advanced research. They exist to enrich their founder(s) and investor(s). As has been noted by Rudy Acuña: En suma, es posible que la vigencia del neoliberalismo esté en proporción directa de la confusión de todo tipo que sus opositores tienen y no por qué tenga algo válido que ofrecer salvo las riquezas de los capitalistas y las becas de sus investigadores que son también sus más enconados defensores en la academia y en la elaboración de las políticas económicas que tanta miseria y desesperación están sembrando por todo el mundo. 32

 

Acuña admitted he "copied" his dissertations.

Acuña admitted he “copied” his dissertations.

Montesinos’ offer to Cesar Acuña did not include media investigation or protection for the rampant plagiarism of Acuña’s own publications, thesis or dissertations, or those he brought into senior positions in his for-profit universities since most of their theses were accepted by the universities they served.  Those that served Acuña well were promoted within the university or ran with an Acuña brother for a post as an “adviser” that none had any qualification for–but with Acuña money laundered for the occasion won in the election. Nothing has been done about it, for Lambayeque Province has long been known for corrupt politics and politicians with the Mayor of the capital of Lambayeque: Chiclayo, Roberto Torres Gonzáles–who brought down with him police, judges, and others who profited from political corruption and money laundering. Torres and some 20 other people in his organization  have moved or amassed close to $100 million in vehicles, real estate, jewelry and cash.    Torres himself received 10% of all municipal contracts and project.33  Torres fall led to other insights. Cesar Acuña’s name and that of his brothers came up as Cesar was mayor of Trujillo, and Humberto the President of Lambayeque, while Virgilius and Mary , and his son Richard, sat in Congress. It was learned that Cesar Acuña was considered for a post in Keiko’s “future” government, and would be rewarded for his role in the election. The role of the other Peruvian dynasty, the Fujimoris, was only beginning to come under scrutiny. Keiko’s brother Kenji had regular run-ins with the police, but always bought his way out of troouble.

 

Kenji Fujimori questioned about drugs found in his warehouse

Kenji Fujimori questioned about drugs found in his warehouse

Kenji Fujimori, is seen, by his supporters, as the next president of the Congress of Peru, to bring about a police state equal or surprising the dictatorship of his father. There is no organized opposition, in spite of the fact that Kenji is openly linked to Montesinos especially with drugs and weapons.34 He is planning to use unpaid student labor to fuel his campaign with threats and lies both for the presidency of Congress, and when he might run against his sister for the presidency of Peru. He hinted at this during his run for Congress. Following the first round of voting in 2016, Kenji achieved his first goal and is to be the next president of Congress of Peru, and will control further drug traffic out of Peru, with the silent support of Keiko and his imprisoned father.

 

Keiko pledges to make Montesinos her adviser of “security” and clandestine activities. Kenji shares the family’s support of the assassin.35 The majority of Peru does not care about political corruption, especially in the Fujimori family.36

 

Fujimoristas defend the assassination of students during Alberto's dictatorship.

Fujimoristas defend the assassination of students during Alberto’s dictatorship.

Using Alberto and Keiko as their inspiration, more than 200 Fujimoristas have been sentenced for corruption in Congress. Martha Chavez remains free regardless of the numerous charges of corruption against the leader of the Fujimoristas in Congress as she has the support of Keiko and Kenji.37 Martha Chavez claimed that she could not understand why she was charged with crimes associated with Alberto Fujimori, although she spearheaded his programs and policies and pushed them through Congress.38 It was all window dressing and image polishing. Chávez personally introduced the clauses of the Peruvian Constitution that allowed Fujimori to run for a second term and suggested that she might attempt to abolish all term limits on the presidency.39 Even those held in esteem, like Martha Hildebrand (an elitist and gifted linguist but no friend of poor people or democracy, but a strong supporter of Fujimori’s family, autocracy and dictatorship), labored to justify and defend the carnage of the Fujimori years–and keep getting reelected to feed longer at the public trough as fat pigs as the poor live in shacks without running water and live in sewer surrounding Lima. Garbage litters the streets of towns and villages. Debris clogs rivers and lakes. Taxes are for the military, police, and tourism. Taxes are not used to better the lives of the lives of the poor or elderly. No one gives a voice to this injustice.

 

"No more Keiko."

“No more Keiko.”

Keiko robbed pensioners.

Keiko robbed pensioners.

Keiko is not universally popular. She has more than her share of detractors but these men and women (and young children) are silenced. Many protests are stopped. Some are arrested. Those that do get public attention get slandered, ridiculed, and sometimes beat. The protests continue. With the upcoming election, there are more protests. Signs are bigger. Denunciations are louder. Keiko is seen as wanting cuts for the poor, further endangerment to the environment, and the continuation of mediocrity in the government. Nothing changes except the people are taking a more active stand for their livelihood and that of their children and grandchildren. The election of 2016 has seen more popular unrest than past elections, giving the Fujimoristas reason to argue for a police state and a dictatorship like Alberto Fujimori. This terror brings votes, cries for curbing civl liberties and human rights.

 

Poor in Peru

Poor in Peru

Like most voters, Peru people vote their stomachs and what their religious leaders say 40. Unsurprising, the Fujimori dynasty has the support of the most corrupt prelate in Peru: Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne, who was publicly accused of murdering his predecessor and multiple other crimes.41 The Roman Catholic Church, like the evangelical and Mormon churches that are flourishing in Peru, is intimate and intricately woven into the fabric of Peru and controls many. There is no separation of state and church. Religion is frequently the “hammer” of the state, and like the Russian Orthodox Church in Moscow incites and condones violence against any it considers apostates42 One such notorious notary of theological terrorism is Pastor Lay who wants to do away with any separation of state and church. 43

 

Humberto Lay Sun

Humberto Lay Sun

Keiko embraces Lay and welcomes religious support and intolerance, in contradiction to what she proclaimed in Utah at a convention held at the for-profit Utah Valley University.44 Keiko told an appreciative audience that 90% of the Peruvians in Utah supported her candidacy. Keiko noted that Peruvians abroad must vote, by law, in Peru’s election. This did not offend anyone. Utah Valley University is like any for-profit university in Peru or the USA. It exists for the money–education is at best secondary. Speakers were chosen for their conservative point-of-view. Keiko was the ideal speaker. She was there to raise money for her campaign, as she had previously in New Jersey and in communities where people from Peru lived and had a strong tie to their native land and even to the Fujimoris, as in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and other communities few would think about, turning instead to Miami and Hollywood, Florida, Dallas and Houston, Texas.

 

Keiko at Utah Valley University.

Keiko at Utah Valley University.

Utah Valley University is not a respected university. Utah Valley University is ranked 1,330 out of 1,391. This means that about 96% of the colleges in our system rank as well or better than this college.45 Keiko studying in the USA was not stellar and she never mastered the English language.]  The dismal future awaiting Peru would have delighted Tomás cardinal Torquemada and the Spanish Inquisition.46 It delights the current Tomás de Torquemada, Juan Luis cardinal Cipriani Thorne, who has to battle accusations that he either directly, or indirectly, killed his predecessor to secure the plum archdiocese of Lima,47 even more so. Keiko seems set to exceed the record of Countess Elizabeth Báthory de Ecsed.48 Electing Keiko president, Peru is set to go down in the pages of history equal to Germany on the cusp or 1939, and Hungary-Transylvania in 1600 and their rise in the culture of assassinations, murder, legitimized state theft, and more. Assassinations are up 60% since last year (2015) and Fujimoristas promise even more.49

 

NOTES

 

  1. “Partido De Keiko Dice Que No Dio Dinero a “Factor K” En Campaña.” El Comercio. March 10, 2016. http://elcomercio.pe/politica/elecciones/partido-keiko-dice-que-no-dio-dinero-factor-k-campana-noticia-1885056.an
  2. Calderon, Ernesto Garcia. “Peru’s Decade of Living Dangerously.” Journal of Democracy 12, no. 2 (April 2001).
  3. https://globalanticorruptionblog.com/2016/03/14/sins-of-the-father-keiko-fujimoris-presidential-candidacy-in-peru/ and http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2016/03/03/world/politics-diplomacy-world/fujimoris-legacy-seen-blessing-curse-daughter-keiko/#.VxYj2TArLcs.
  4. Cesar is matched by the opportunism of Virgilius, who employs the untrained and basically illiterate graduates from UCV in his Universidad de Lambayeque in Chiclayo. All Acuña “education centers” are rife with nepotism. Cp. http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:gPqVIqnHbfsJ:www.arthuride.com/attacking-academic-excellence-silencing-scientific-inquiry-and-dumbing-down-education-in-the-usa-peru-and-throughout-the-third-world/+&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us…  The raison d’etre of the Acuña family is to further enrich themselves while impoverishing the burgeoning poor and increase their own wealth, while furthering the goal of the top 1% of elevating Peru to the status of an autocracy. Cf. Philip Mauceri (Dec. 1997) Return of the Caudillo: Autocratic Democracy in Peru,” Third World Quarterly Vol. 18, No. 5 (Dec. 1997), pp. 899-911. Cp. http://www.nytimes.com/1997/06/14/opinion/l-fujimori-s-autocracy-ruined-peruvian-economy-635030.html. Also, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/254961310_Economic_Austerity_and_the_Peruvian_Crisis_The_Social_Cost_of_Autocracy.
  5. http://www.nytimes.com/1995/01/31/business/peru-on-the-very-fast-track.html?pagewanted=all.
  6. http://perureports.com/2016/01/27/cesar-Acuña-may-lose-degree-after-plagiarism-revealed-in-thesis/ and http://www.peruthisweek.com/news-twitter-anthropologist-reveals-cesar-Acuña-plagiarized-his-doctoral-thesis-108684. The lie that Cesar Acuña told that he only copied parts, was quickly exposed when authors showed that he copied their entire work.
  7. http://cen.acs.org/articles/94/i6/Chemical-Engineer-Running-President-Peru.html.
  8. At USS and UCV education is at best a farce. The titular heads of Department of Foreign Languages, following the demands of  their main campus heads (who at best have a Master degree in Education, and little knowledge of foreign tongues) that all languages are taught in Spanish. The local campuses administrators of the English program have marginal fluency in English and pass students for a bachelor degree to hide their own inadequacy. UCV graduates go on to other Acuña self-styled universities (e.g. Universidad Lambayeque in Chiclayo). The admit on LinkedIn and other social media that they have a  “difficult time speaking, reading, writing” or even thinking in English.
  9. I was hired at UCV – Chiclayo, and immediately had students, faculty and the director of foreign languages state that if wanted to keep my job I had to pass all of my students—most of whom failed. Several students, who slept in my classes every class period, told me that Cesar Acuña promised them a degree and a diploma if they worked for his election. It always took place at Jockey Club—an elitist restaurant. Cesar personally took my students from my night course without notifying me. Several students related that Acuña vowed that students who helped him in his election bid would not have to study or take examinations. It was confirmed by the Directora of English, Maria Magdalena Usquiano Piscoya, at UCV – Chiclayo. http://www.arthuride.com/attacking-academic-excellence-silencing-scientific-inquiry-and-dumbing-down-education-in-the-usa-peru-and-throughout-the-third-world/ Over 90% of my students failed every cycle I taught in Peru. The students could not, and would not, read, write, or speak the English language even at the most elementary level. The reason they unanimously gave was that they “did not like school or homework.” Others, like Claudia Sandoval, would spout “I paid my tuition, give me the degree!” feeling entitled to the diploma as she “studied” at the community college in Houston, Texas.
  10. With even casual research and a scan of theses, it was painfully noticeable that theses were plagiarized—a common reality throughout Peru even at national universities, such as Universidad Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo (UNPRG in Lambayeque).
  11. Cf. https://arthuride.wordpress.com/2012/02/26/education-in-peru-is-failing-and-what-can-be-done-to-restore-it/.
  12. Read: Cotler, Julio, and Romeo Grompone. La Gobernabilidad En El Perú: Entre El Autoritutoritarismo Y La Democracia. Lima, Peru: IEP, 2000.
  13. Ibid.
  14. As a member of Congress years later (from 2006 to 2011), Keiko was regarded as irresponsible and mediocre and engaged openly in favoritism.  She accumulated more than 500 absences from her congressional forum responsibilities, including from a committee on which she held a prominent position. Cf. “Keiko Fujimori Tuvo 500 Faltas En Sus Cinco Años De Congresista.” La República. April 07, 2011. http://larepublica.pe/07-04-2011/keiko-fujimori-tuvo-500-faltas-en-sus-cinco-anos-de-congresista. Keiko sponsored a paucity of legislation and passed little to the credit of the Peru Congress that she did not yet control. Now her narco-trafficking, mafia-controlled, vote-buying brother, Kenji, is to be elected the President of Congress and further solidify Fujimori control over Peru and its people, has vowed to replace Keiko if his sister is not elected President of the Republic on the next term when a president is to be elected: 2021.
  15. Horler, Stephan, and Ruby Cazarez. “Peru 2016 Presidential Elections: César Acuña and Julio Guzmán Disqualified.” COHA. March 15, 2016. http://www.coha.org/peru-2016-presidential-elections-cesar-Acuña-and-julio-guzman-disqualified/.
  16. “Partido De Keiko Dice Que No Dio Dinero a “Factor K” En Campaña.” El Comercio. March 10, 2016. http://elcomercio.pe/politica/elecciones/partido-keiko-dice-que-no-dio-dinero-factor-k-campana-noticia-1885056.
  17. http://www.cipamericas.org/archives/4642 and https://arthuride.wordpress.com/tag/kenji-fujimori/.
  18. https://news.vice.com/article/perus-booming-cocaine-business-is-turning-it-into-latin-americas-newest-narco-state and http://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Kenji-Fujimori-Most-Popular-Congressman-Linked-to-Drug-Trade-20160410-0039.html.
  19. überschuldet, expresses it more exact.
  20. Alberto put away his wife, Susanna.
  21. https://news.vice.com/article/keiko-fujimoris-chances-becoming-perus-president-depend-on-her-jailed-dads-legacy. Cf. http://perureports.com/2016/04/03/peru-keiko-fujimori-vows-not-pardon-father/.
  22. Goebbels was given control over the local Sturmabteilung (SA) and Schutzstaffel (SS) and answered only to Hitler.
  23. Cf.  Goebbell, Josef (1930). der Nazi-Sozi : Fragen und Antworten für den Nationalsozialisten. München: Eher. Cp.  Longerich, Peter (2010). Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
  24. Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin was a Russian peasant, mystical faith healer, and the trusted friend of the family of Nicholas II, the last Tsar of Russia. He was diagnosed as a mad monk who controlled the House of Romanov with superstitions and parlor tricks. Cf.  Fomin, Sergei Vladimirovich “Grigorij Rasputin: Rassledovanie”: Volume 1: “Наказание Правдой” (2007); Volume 2. “А кругом широкая Россия…” (2008); Volume 3. “Боже! Храни Своих!” (2009); Volume 4. “Судья же мне Господь!” (2010); Volume 5. “Ложь велика, но правда больше…” (2010); Volume 6. “Страсть как больно, а выживу…” (2011); Volume 7 “Милые, дорогие, не отчаивайтесь” (2013).
  25. http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/m/montesinos_vladimiro.htm.
  26. http://elcomercio.pe/politica/justicia/poder-judicial-ordena-repatriar-us438693-red-montesinos-noticia-1883493?ref=flujo_tags_1156&ft=nota_5&e=titulo.
  27. http://elcomercio.pe/politica/actualidad/marina-guerra-niega-salidas-irregulares-vladimiro-noticia-1886651?ref=flujo_tags_1156&ft=nota_3&e=titulo.
  28. http://elcomercio.pe/noticias/vladimiro-montesinos-1156.
  29.   Supka, Géza (c. 1940). Az átkozott asszony: Nádasdy Ferencné, Báthory Erzsébet bűnügye. Erdélyi Egyetemes Könyvtár. Cp. Dvořák, Pavel (1999). Krvavá grófka: Alžbeta Bátoryová, fakty a výmysly. Slovart; with attention to  Lengyel, Tünde and Várkonyi, Gábor (2010). Báthory Erzsébet, Egy asszony élete. General Press Kiadó.
  30. http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2016/jan/04/peru-forced-sterilisation-quipu-project-alberto-fujimori. Read also https://www.opendemocracy.net/5050/mariella-sala/forced-sterilization-and-impunity-in-peru.  On the corrupt courts in Peru, read, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-25890287. See the sale of votes on the courts for dollars: http://www.ipsnews.net/2006/09/corruption-peru-supreme-court-justice-for-300-dollars/.
  31. http://elcomercio.pe/politica/elecciones/pinchi-pinchi-tambien-acuso-cesar-Acuña-ante-poder-judicial-noticia-1880220?ref=flujo_tags_1156&ft=nota_9&e=titulo.
  32. Translation: In sum, it is possible that the validity of neoliberalism is in direct proportion to the confusion the diverse opponents have and not because it has something valid to offer except for the wealth of the capitalists and the research grants to its investigators that are also its fiercest defenders in the academy and in the elaboration of the economic policies that are spreading so much misery and despair worldwide.
  33.  http://www.peruviantimes.com/08/police-capture-fugitive-mayor-in-northern-peru/23030/ and http://diariocorreo.pe/edicion/lambayeque/chiclayo-mas-policias-anticorrupcion-caerian-por-sus-nexos-con-beto-627907/.
  34. http://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Kenji-Fujimori-Most-Popular-Congressman-Linked-to-Drug-Trade-20160410-0039.html.
  35. http://www.sfgate.com/opinion/article/HOW-TO-STEAL-A-DEMOCRACY-In-Peru-bribes-were-2506198.php.
  36. http://www.nytimes.com/1992/04/21/opinion/l-peru-wants-stability-more-than-due-process-932192.html.
  37. http://blogs.ubc.ca/peru/2006/01/24/the-unreconstructed-fujimorismo-of-martha-chavez/. Cp. http://www.aparchive.com/metadata/youtube/9dd5cc65f27c1ad2158b86551c9afbb2.
  38. Read: http://www.nytimes.com/2000/12/03/world/fujimori-s-fall-a-nation-s-lion-to-broken-man.html?pagewanted=all, and http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/09/world/americas/09peru.html?fta=y&_r=0.
  39. Read: Conaghan, Catherine M. (2005). Fujimori’s Peru: Deception in the Public Sphere. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 57.
  40. http://www.theigc.org/project/why-people-vote-for-corrupt-politicians-evidence-from-survey-experiments-in-afghanistan/ also http://clericalwhispers.blogspot.com/2012/02/peru-cardinal-ciprianis-candidacy-as.html and http://www.arthuride.com/roman-catholic-church-attack-on-human-rights-and-benedict-xvis-cover-up/
  41. http://www.elpopular.pe/actualidad-y-policiales/2016-04-09-juan-luis-cipriani-es-investigado-por-encubrir-abusos-en-sodalicio.
  42. http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/roads/2013/08/moscow_s_underground_mosques_russia_s_intolerance_toward_muslims_may_be.html. Cf. https://books.google.com/books?id=TqaMMLt6b_8C&pg=PA28&lpg=PA28&dq=russian+orthodox+church+moscow+intolerance&source=bl&ots=qtDnHuTxFr&sig=Ypb9b7p0zL1ao43W26ZTGOYYeC8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiVtcy82fLMAhUKSlIKHRJsAiAQ6AEIWTAJ#v=onepage&q=russian%20orthodox%20church%20moscow%20intolerance&f=false with the biggest foe being the Patriarch of Moscow Kirill I who had been a KGB agent, and similar to Montesino and SIN in Peru.
  43. Lay Sun is not to be confused with Aurelio Pastor Valdivieso, a Peruvian politician and a former Congressman representing San Martín for the 2006-2011 term. Pastor (his father’s last name, as in Peru’s culture the last name consists of both the last name of the father and the last name of the mother, belongs to the Peruvian Aprista Party. He was soundly defeated in his 2011 bid for a congressional seat.
  44. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WW94sh2byBE. Comments in Spanish are at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_r8bBpksj2M.
  45.   http://www.collegefactual.com/colleges/utah-valley-university/rankings/quality-why/#.
  46. Tomás de Torquemada (1630). Instrucciones del Santo Oficio de la Inquisicion … (Madrid : En la Impr. Real, 1630).
  47. http://www.odan.org/media_cipriani.htm.
  48. Cp. Letter from Thurzó to his wife, 30 December 1610, printed in Farin, Michael (2003). Heroine des Grauens. Elisabeth Báthory. Munich: P. Kirchheim., p. 293. Supka, Géza (c. 1940). Az átkozott asszony: Nádasdy Ferencné, Báthory Erzsébet bűnügye. Erdélyi Egyetemes Könyvtár. Cf. Kočiš, Jozef (2007). Alžbeta Bátoriová a jej obete. Knižné centrum. Also: García Sánchez, Javier (2005). Ella, Drácula: vida y crímenes de la condesa sangrienta, la mayor asesina en serie de la historia. Planeta. Consider the motion picture: Novotny, Pavel (Director) (2014). “Die Gräfin Elisabeth Bathory und das Geheimnis hinter dem Geheimnis.”
  49. https://www.globalwitness.org/en/campaigns/environmental-activists/perus-deadly-environment/, cp. http://www.ecosystemmarketplace.com/articles/breaking-indigenous-leaders-assassinated-peru-loggers-implicated-widows-orphans-flee/ and http://www.latimes.com/world/mexico-americas/la-fg-peru-election-20160409-story.html. Cf. https://www.osac.gov/pages/ContentReportDetails.aspx?cid=19283 and http://www.numbeo.com/crime/city_result.jsp?country=Peru&city=Lima.

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