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Intriguing Prose in Academic Research: Bringing Life to Scientific Papers

Contents

I. Abstract

II. Caveats

III. Introduction

IV. Encyclopedic Theses

V. Narrowing the Research Topic

VI. Narrowing the Question

VII. Critical Reading

VIII. Critical Writing

IX. Succinct Academic Writing

X. Attracting the Reader’s Attention

XI. Critical Composition

XII. Paragraphs in Composition

XIII. Correlative Paragraphs

XIV. Connections, Conjunctions, and Transitions

XV. Clarity of Expression

XVI. Punctuation

XVII. Conclusion

XVIII. Recommendations

XIX. Bibliography

XX. End notes

Abstract

All academic theses have abstracts.1 Abstracts let the reader decide whether or not to continue to read the thesis, and show the reader what to look for if he or she does read the thesis.

No abstract should be inserted merely to repeat the outline of the thesis. Abstracts that just list the contents of the document are redundant at best, and out of place in bare reality. Instead of placing an outline of the thesis in the abstract, the list belongs in a Table of Contents (or Contents).

A correct abstract presents as much as possible of the quantitative and qualitative information that exists in the document. The abstract, as well, reflects on the reasoning behind the thesis and clearly states the modus operandi of the thesis.2

Abstracts, by definition, are short. Academic writers limit their abstracts to 100 to 250 words. The words chosen answer specific questions, such as: Why was the thesis written? What was done to determine reliability of facts? How were the facts discovered? Even more critical, to the purpose of the thesis and to laud credibility to the writer of the thesis, is the question: What impact the thesis will have on future studies in the same area?

If the paper is about a new method or apparatus, the abstract must detail what advantages are given in the paper? The author must state if he or she has used the new method or a new strategy to ferret out information, detailing the apparatus used and stating how well the new apparatus or material works (this is usually reserved for scientific papers or research on educational programs and studies). It is essential that the wordsmith writes about his or her own experience with the new apparatus or method and explain all problems and successes encountered.

Caveats

Redundancies must be avoided. Since nearly every abstract is read along with the title of the thesis. The title, for that reason, must never be included in the abstract.

Proposals, methods and findings must be included. Do not refer to information that is not in the document. Never create information that cannot be verifiable nor that is authentic—it is and always must be searchable and researchable by others. If that information is a document it must be accessible to others either in existing books or other written documents on parchment or other substance including cuneiforms cut into stones and potsherd, and by digitizing the information, or by sending a photocopy to academics who request it and have the academic and literary competency to read it if it is in a language different than the one used by the writer.

The responsibility for knowing the idiom of the document lies with the requester and not with the author of the thesis.3 Abstracts must not carry footnotes or bibliography. Abbreviations, acronyms, symbols or trade names and contractions must be eschewed and never used.

Use active verbs, not passive verbs. Delete first person pronouns; the third-person singular pronoun, it, refers only to inanimate objects: not animals.

Add key words from the document, and if possible, list the key words at the bottom of the abstract. These key words must be within the document itself, and not added as an afterthought or to give false, counterfactual or apocryphal strength to the argument of the thesis. Key words not only helps libraries to catalogue the work, but enables other researchers to determine swiftly if the thesis is of potential value to their oeuvres.

Introduction

When anyone, especially an academic, is faced with the need, the direction by a superior, to investigate the cause of some deficiency or an alternate opportunity and write a paper detailing the steps taken and conclusions reached, many potential authors are afraid. Those catechized with the opportunity to present themselves and their ideas in written format, frequently stammer the time-worn cliché: “I freeze up”.  Other would-be epistolarians sidestep their shot at offering exposing errors, refuting fantasies accepted for centuries, and offer new ideas by querulously grumbling that they have graphophobia (γράφημα φοβία: fear at the thought of writing).4

It is neither bête noir, neither recreancy nor abhorrence, much less than trepidation that terrorizes those tasked with scripting their signature in the history of ideas. Gazetteers, reporters, writers and scientific journalist equally dread with dismay and consternation that what they write will not be of interest or use to a presumed readership not yet realized. They tremble that they will not truly contribute to the literature in their field or are found wanting and deficient in sufficient investigative research skills. They are like the semi-blind Venerable Jorge in Umberto Eco’s acclaimed Name of the Rose, “leaving more worldly matters to younger men.” Such feigned praise, fabricated in the imagination to mislead others into censuring their own abilities so that they pale before the alleged more celebrated savant denies the reality of exploration and scrutiny of that which is in an effort to see that which could be a better verisimilitude palpability in the world of inquiry today.

In many cases graphophobia occurs when a seasoned soul attempts to write about what he or she has discovered, and at the conclusion of the treatise thinks his or her autograph is nearly perfect and then is told by an assumed or hailed experienced writer or educator that the writing is of insufficient quality or lacking proper preparation for publication. This is frequently devastating, denying the writer a chance to mature with each future article or tome.  Frequently this leads to a declination of personal acceptance of self-worth as the expositor exhales and is unable or unwilling to cope with criticism, rejection, or failure, ignoring that this can be corrected with cognitive behavioral or desensitization therapy.5

When it comes to a thesis, many scripters assume that they must collect and analyze massive libraries of qualitative and quantitative data even though most data is uncritical and of little value, as few writers have mastered the art of critical review. When these adventurers into the misty world of investigation and research transcribe the information found they trouble themselves with the assumption that what they glean from the tracts used must keep their document not as a new born baby rejoicing in its nascence parturition, but left like a dead and decaying person deemed dusty, dry, bromidic and boring. Such a paper should never be printed or published.

Steps to writing a good essay

Steps to writing a good essay

The greatest problem with writing any thesis or any paper of any length is that most writers do not know the common steps required to begin writing the introduction, reasoned methodology, body or text, the summation, conclusion nor the recommendations for what was investigated and research.  Most scriptors do not even know the difference between investigation and research, but in the manner of those marginally trained, and usually publish only on-line,6 there is little attention to the fine points for quality writing. Most are given over to temporary, cursory, and transient arguments, such as whether or not is time to discontinue using adverbs, or whether or not it is permissible to start a sentence with a conjunction that modernists demand.

Writing a thesis statement.

Writing a thesis statement.

A quality thesis is factual, accurate, and accentuated with a lively and literary writing style that entertains and keeps the readers’ attention.7 Good writing is colorful, fascinating, and spell-binding as if the author was a well-trained sorcerer who waved a wonderful wand of worthy words over a handmade parchment paper making it glisten with details and pearled words more rare and valuable than any diadem worn by a doyen whose enchanting and engaging litany of facts are the ultimate glory of the subject matter.

Zetetic: Rejecting the status quo.

Zetetic: Rejecting the status quo.

Before any investigator or researcher initiates the task of thesis preparation, the stanchion scholar stands sentry to interrogate himself / herself with a plethora of possible questions that critics cast during peer review. He or she will marshal his or her material in anticipation for calls for sustaining the project’s veracity, and accepting the possibility of preying questions as to his or her ability, pondering what resources are available to do the work, the length of time required for accomplishing the job set forth, and the community of colleagues and other supporters any size and understanding are available to the pytacorin zetetics who surround the research project8 and who will grudgingly grant acceptance, and possible assistance in bring the paper into fruition.9

In many cases when these questions are asked, almost in the manner of the great but more gentle interrogator Socrates of Athens (469-399 BCE), who, unlike the brisk and insultingly ignorant Grand Inquisitor (Великий Инквизитор),  detailed responses carefully.  The Russian Grand Inquisitor of today, Vladimir Mikhailovich Gundyayev, (Russian: Владимир Михайлович Гундяев; born 1946) who goes by the name of Kirill (for Cyril the Philosopher), contradicts himself repeatedly.  At one point, the prelate said (29 December 2008) that he was opposed to any reforms of a liturgical or doctrinal nature in the Church.  He repeated himself in January 2009, but when he met with Pope Benedict XVI, later, he spoke of ecumenicism that he had called an apostasy.

Under the code name of “Mikhailov” he served as a KGB agent, and sent many pensioners, priests and the poor to prison.  His actions are more in keeping with the Grand Inquisitor in duplicity, hatred for any form of compassion and tenderness or logic.  Kirill has become the cadaver-like equal of the clergy so well pictured by Dostoyevsky by his crack down on dissent in Russia, that one would expect him to find the New Testament Jesus an undesirable and demanding that he, too, be sent to jail.

Kirill of contemporary Moscow, a senior author of its laws against human rights and civil liberties, fulfills the prophecy of Ivan who recounted the cryptic hatred of the Grand Inquisitor to his brother Alyosha in Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky’s novel The Brothers Karamazov10. Dostoyevsky used the metaphor of “withered cold parched lips” the spoke of Christ but lips that would never kiss the Jesus of the Gospels that neither he nor anyone in the Russian Orthodox Church knew or were concerned with as a lord or savior.

Kirill, like the Russian Orthodox Church has neither time nor interest in the Jesus of the New Testament except as a blood-stained rope to tie people to the official state Church and take their money.  Tracing the tale back, to the philologist and historian, Dostoyevsky relates the torturous trials and spiteful slicing of freedom from those forsaken as heretics by the Spanish Dominican friar Tomás de Torquemada (1420 – September 16, 1498). Torquemada  was the first Grand Inquisitor in Spain’s movement to forcibly restore Christianity among its Muslim and Jewish populace. To do this, Torquemada, like Kirill I does today, as in the case with the women in the bank Pussy Riot, the Grand Inquisitors exile women who fail to follow the code damning women to an inferior role or if they disobey sending them to foul prisons while sending men to forced labor camps.

Sentences were, and still are, passed in civil courts in both instances for public propaganda and show, but are and have always been determined in the prayer rooms of cathedrals that serve no good for the advance of the general population in understanding their government, becoming more literate, or offering a voice for all in quest of Truth (правда). It is as foreign a concept in Russia today as democracy is since 1980 in the USA.

Russian police beating gay man

Russian police beating gay man

Torquemada’s torture chambers, complete with racks for pulling apart joints and water-boarding, were restored in Moscow’s prisons and police cells. What ground had existed for the poor children of medieval Spain to play on was defiled with construction of new monasteries. In Moscow, Kirill resurrected the haunting house of horror, the cathedral Christ the Savior (Храм Христа Спасителя).  It was built on the site of a public swimming pool for children–within a few blocks of the Kremlin and its cavernous death cells. The foundations of the new cathedral are built on human skulls, reminiscent of brutal barbarity of San Francisco church in Lima, Peru, that has entire floors fashioned with weathered bones of the dead and decomposed for the greater glory of the Spanish god whose soldiers raped, pillaged, and burned at the call of Dominican and Franciscan Inquisitors crying out for human sacrifice to petition their deity to pardon the sins of those they were consigning to the fires stoked by the hoteliers of hell carrying crosses that stroked the flames of hate against the native people of the Andes.

Russian police beat and rape lesbians after the government passed anti-gay laws unanimously.

Russian police beat and rape lesbians after the government passed anti-gay laws unanimously.

As some Russian citizens have noted: пришло время начать выполнение служителей Русской Православной Церкви и полиции, которые думают, что они Бога и может очистить мир после своего развратного дизайна (it is time to start executing Russian Orthodox priests, parents and police who think they are god and can purify the world after their own lecherous design).  Most parents and most psychologists in Russia who have marginal educations to no education at all consider homosexuality to be a choice, that it can be changed with reparative (brain-washing) therapy as used in the days of Stalin, and that if a parent kills a child even suspected of being LGBT, the parent will automatically win a place in the heavens and sit near Russian Orthodox clergy.  What is denied is the investigation of any opposing opinion or reading any scientific studies; to publish contrary to the totalitarian theocratic government can merit no less than ten years in prison at hard labor in Siberia, castration, or execution. Schools are becoming worse than in South America and the conduct of inquiry forbidden.

The rise in hate and hate-crimes in Russia, as they have escalated in Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Israel, USA, and throughout Latin America is the direct result of the interference and recorded human rights abuses of organized religion. This is especially true with the Russian Orthodox church that not only preys on the young, but the old, infirmed, and ill to gain wealth to build more monasteries, churches, and close down “alternative education centers,” beginning with the state’s attack on the people’s land by constructing the monstrous building began of Our Savior’s Cathedral  in 1990.  By erasing the public pool for Moscow’s people, the Russian Orthodox Church began  fulfilling a legacy of hate initiated by Tsar Alexander I in 1812.  There is little that has any memory to or recognition of the New Testament Jesus, as it is decorated with Free-masonic  symbolism.  Wealth was restored to the Romanov family, to the Russian Orthodox hierarchy, and to the supporters of Vladimir Putin who pushed millions to his former KGB agent and now Russian Orthodox patriarch Kirill of Moscow: paying huge sums for planes, yachts, palaces, and more.

Kirill's lavish lifestyle on $5 billion dollars as he preaches about the poverty of Christ.

Kirill’s lavish lifestyle on $5 billion dollars as he preaches about the poverty of Christ.

Patriarch of All Russia, Kirill has unsurpassed taste and endless fund’s for lavish nocturnal dinners with priests who delight in watching very young girls perform for the, tossing them pieces of fruit or other sweets to reward a high-step in a dance pale before his personal lifestyle built on the sale of illegal cigarettes to Moscow’s youth.  Those who bow the knee before Russian Orthodox Patriarch Kirill, like his all girl-body guards paid for Putin and the Russian state who are but a token of the former KGB informer, gain preference.

Kirills all-female body guard provided at Putin's expenseOrthodoxy in Russian religion ignores what most fail to see in the patriarch fleet of high-power state-of-technology jets to various meetings to discuss “critical issues facing the faith”, such as Pussy Riot wanting to pray for the removal of the dictator Putin and using punk-rock music as an expression of their fervor to see Russia return to democracy that was too short lived.11

Kirill, when not on his yacht Pallada, proclaims Putin’s dictatorship and slaughter of dissidents is a “miracle of god”.12

Kirill uses his Pallada to go on spiritual retreats

Kirill uses his Pallada to go on spiritual retreats

Kirill’s near canonization of Putin who enables the patriarch to increase his multibillion dollar holdings continues even when the patriarch of the Russian Othodox Church is not living in his St. Petersburg penthouse, delighting guests with Russian caviar in his chalet in Switzerland, or flying in a government-paid jet that still bears the symbols of the Russian Federation as does the Pallada.

Kirill's yacht Pallada with symbols of the government of the Russian Federation.

Kirill’s yacht Pallada with symbols of the government of the Russian Federation.

Kirill has the planes chauffeur not only gangsters and assassins but clerical pedophiles and mercenaries.

Kirill's personal bedroom on the Pallada where he remembers the suffering Christ.

Kirill’s personal bedroom on the Pallada where he remembers the suffering Christ.

Kirill’s yachts have nothing in common with the ascetic early church cells for monks, but are more in keeping with the rich tastes of medieval bishops, popes and patriarchs.  This is most graphically seen when touring Kirill’s favorite   yacht:13 the Pallada that has given a warm welcome to international dictators, mafias from all parts of the world including Russia, Italy, Germany, and so forth to stoke the greed of Kirill.

Kirill's kitchen on-board his private yacht Pallada.

Kirill’s kitchen on-board his private yacht Pallada.

The Pallada has ever comfort from imported woods to the finest of linens.  It has a fully equipped kitchen and bar.

Kirill's private bathroom on-board his yacht Padalla,

Kirill’s private bathroom on-board his yacht Padalla,

The Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church’s bathroom is more in keeping with Russian billionaires and USA Hollywood stars, than any latrine used by poor parish priests–that are actually better than any hope in a forest used by many Bulgarian peasants who are among the poorest and least educated in the former Soviet Union and how bear the burden of religion ransacking its limited educational system.

Kirill's guest bedrooms on the Padalla.

Kirill’s guest bedrooms on the Padalla.

Guest rooms on the Pallada are even more elaborate than those in four star hotels. Room service is twenty-four hours a day, and any tardiness to answer a summons is greeted with a beating.  The rules of the Russian Orthodox Church forbids any questioning, any objection to any whim of the Patriarch and the enfeebled government is powerless against the Patriarch.  The Pallada offers an ever-growing splendor of luxury as changes, modifications, enhancements, embellishments, and adornments are constantly appearing as the stock of wines, champagnes and other alcoholic beverages are loaded into the storage by the case.

If the Patriarch needs to cool off with a shower, or feel the warmth of a sauna, both are available on this luxury yacht that the pennies clawed from the hands of the faithful are used to pay for the Patriarch’s spiritual exercises.  The yacht, however, does not take up all the time of the holy man of Moscow, for when not being chauffeured in any of his luxury cars, is on the constant quest for the right candidate who will be vibrantly willing to advance to any degree of perfidy and stop questioning unholy scripture that damns all who do not conform or dare to question any thing not blessed by the pathetic patriarch.  The new Russian translations are even less authentic than the Tsarist tabloids tendered as tomes of god.

Kirill's PhotoShopped disappearing 30,000+ euro watch.

Kirill’s PhotoShopped disappearing 30,000+ euro watch.

Kirill is deeply concerned about time and keeps tract of it on his 30,000+ Euro watches that miraculously disappear from photographs by the use of Power Shop and other computer programs.

A favored priest can lose all benefits if he dared to question the wily predatory patriarch. This has been the fate of more than one scrupulous savant or scholar who dared to expose the ecclesiastical eunuch who attempted to cover up his luxury watch with Photo Shop.  There is nothing wrong with owning an expensive watch–nor even more than one dozen, with several being bordered with diamonds and clusters of gold nuggets, but it does stretch the credulity of  “the servant of the servants of god” who takes pains to preach about the “poverty of the Christ, our Lord and Savior” who had nothing in common with the Jesus of Matthew, Mark, Luke, or John.

Detaills of the Prestige Time piece worn by Kirill of Moscow

Details of the Prestige Time piece worn by Kirill of Moscow

The expensive watch has even less in common with the Jesus of any of the other gospels that the Emperor Constantine I had burned before him at the Council of Nicaea that he had called to create his law court (εκκλησία) and assembly to harness the power of the growing autocrats who delighted in styling themselves as bishops of a καθολική εκκλησία as detailed by Thucydides 1.76 (it was used by Plato as a verb, and did not become a title until 332 when it was known as a “superintendent”).

Kirill's dinner guest

Kirill’s dinner guests

These watches, it has been explained are essential to keep tract of important meetings and dinner parties.  Kirill dines more lavishly than even the corrupt Romanov dynasty, and all has been approved by Putin and his puppet government.

Those few who dare to disagree with or disparage the ruthless rogue retching raw words against perceived enemies are not invited to any of the sumptuous feasts provided by the patriarch in his official palaces where little girls dance while succulent meats and sweets are carried in on enameled plates and sat down upon pure linen clothes. Kirill’s theocratic state has begun, and with it he heaps honors on himself and others, while spending his time with his many homes, jets and other amusements; where is there any notice of Не собирайте себе сокровищ на земле, где моль и ржа истребляют и где воры подкапывают и крадут (Матфея 6:19).

To this mendacious, apocryphal end, the Russian Orthodox Church has brought wrongful discredit upon the wisdom of the ancient Socrates who taught “question everything”.  It is the issue of questioning everything that is the foundation of the scientific method that gives birth, life, and strength to disprove or refute (in ancient Greek, it is ἔλεγχος elengkhos; today it is known as Elenchus) the myths of what tyrants declare is right or wrong even if what is legislated as being wrong is natural, normal, and can lead to self-actualization and a return to society a good in exchange for openness and tolerance.14 As Thomas Jefferson of Virginia (1743-1826), one-time president of the USA remarked: “Question with boldness even the existence of a God; because, if there be one, he must more approve of the homage of reason, than that of blind-folded fear.”

The true thesis must be narrow in scope.15 The competent writer will inform his or her reader(s) that the thesis is limited by using such words or phrases as:

The study does not cover the……

The researcher limited this research to……

This study is limited to……

Encyclopedic Theses

No thesis is to be encyclopedic.16 An encyclopedic paper defeats the purpose of a thesis focused on a single, significant, succinct and critical point.

 

Narrowing the Research Topic

By narrowing the research topic, the literatus will, with academic modesty, cut back the scope of the proposal.17 For example, one woman whom I was tasked with helping wanted to write her thesis on translation and interpretation. When I suggested that the thesis topic was too broad of a subject for a single study, and that numerous studies on both of the sciences (translation and interpretation) had been done, my student advanced a proposal to write only on translation.

I encouraged her to rifle in on one field. Half-heartedly she sighed she would shower her strength on legal texts.

Urging her to focus more sharply and refine her search, encouraging her to consider translation of legal terminology in criminal cases, there was a pregnant pause in the air. It was a strange, almost suffocating moment, as if I was on trial and awaiting a verdict for my audacity in recommending a more circumspect and limited study.

Finally, my student agreed.  Sardonically she stated that she should read legal cases that were filed only within Lambayeque Province.

Not easily  intimidated even by pregnant pauses, I earmarked my concern and encouraged her research to be more contained while approving the reading of legal briefs. Crestfallen, she agreed to look at the records housed in Chiclayo’s law offices.

Mount Holyoke 1925.BS.II.3, Attic black figure skyphos, c. 500 B.C.E. Hercules takes a break. The goddess Athena pours Hercules a glass of wine.

Mount Holyoke 1925.BS.II.3, Attic black figure skyphos, c. 500 B.C.E.
Hercules takes a break. The goddess Athena pours Hercules a glass of wine.

Adumbratingly, I intimated more broadly, that there were too many of those tracts, and suggested a less ambitious effort. Another sigh followed with the student of tomorrow tormented at the prospect of peering over dusty records, and then another pause, before she suggested, guarded and obviously hurt that I would question her ability to master a Herculean task equal to cleaning out the Augean stables as if I was Eurystheus commandeering the project and overseeing the labor, but breathed a subtle and pained affirmation.

My last request, made with great trepidation as I knew that scant few students at any age in Perú like to read and even fewer will read an entire book in less than five years (a rare marginal number will task themselves with completing a minor tome in one year–unless it is by J. K. Rawling who crafts  mysteries for Harry Potter to solve)  was that she review and analyze only the court records on robbery committed in small stores. By following this suggestion the student was able to narrow her topic to a single manageable question.18

While my emerging scholar was in search of instant fame and to write a definitive work, I reminded my freshman savant that she would have time to achieve fame and recognition with future theses and dissertations.  I commented that no dissertation is forever and related how I rejected my own thesis written in 1963—several times, and each rejection resulted in a new book that added to the literature on the topic.

Nothing lasts, I noted, and there is no single infallible source or person who can make pronouncements that last forever, as even forever will not last when our small and insignificant universe on the tail of the Milky Way is swallowed into one of Stephen Hawking’s well-researched and superbly written tomes on Black Holes.  I have for a long time used Stephen Hawking and Umberto Eco as two stellar examples of true scientific and critical thinking, pinning hopes for the future of Perú on the slim possibility that eventually both students and teachers would discover not only information on the printed page but a new world of opportunities in area of learning.  Conclusively, I argued, that the student might make her mind into a new black hole that absorbs everything, for no black hole is empty, and no mind should be allowed to stagnate and become unfilled and unfulfilled.

 

Narrowing the Question

Once the question was narrowed, the strength of the question would be evident in interviews, I assure all my students who have a thirst for knowledge.  This happens when the study is pinpointed.  For one student the thesis topic had numerous concerns before becoming truly limited, as with the case of robbery or theft.  For example, narrowing the questions requires and concerns (1) the stated cause for the robber: i.e. poverty, hospitalization bills, a requirement to join a specific criminal element, and so forth; (2) time of the robbery; (3) location of the robbery, (4) frequency of robbery, (5) aggravated circumstances: i.e. intrusion by customers, police, and others, or recognition by the victim, and so forth.19

Once these questions are presented, the following propositions can be made what robbery is / may be the result of:
(1) Joblessness or inadequate/minimum pay or part-time labor for work performed can lead the individual to rob in order to eat or supplement income not realized.20

(2) Governmental policies against labor to the gain of the 1% who control 98% of the means of production of wealth in Perú disallow anyone the chance of rising above poverty levels.21

(3) Strict gun control leads desperate people to secure guns illegally and thereby take advantage of businesses that are without security force to protect themselves and their property. The percentage of illegal guns used in crime is about 95.7 percent; compared to 4.3 percent of “legal” guns uses illegally. 22

(4) Declination or lack of desire to work as robbery is seen as an “easy way” of obtaining money: laziness—that can lead to the robber becoming a “refined” robber going from taking candy in a store to entering school and extorting students to do the work for the thief, and ultimately becoming a plagiarist at any level including if the individual should achieve professorial rank or academic direction certification as a dean or assessor.23

(5) The problem of a general lack of ethics or understanding of ethics in today’s society leads to the rise in crime given the more pronounced sense of personal selfishness in the community.24 Unfortunately few people even know the definition of ethics, and many feel that scruples should be considered only by the poor or the dwindling middle class, a theory championed by politicians (as when Romney said he would only represent 47% of the American people if elected in 2010) or clergy (as with Patriarch Kirill of Moscow as he selects another expensive car). What the investigator needs is tools to expose fraud such as unearthing Photo Shop being used to cast aspersions or to hide reality, or anti-plagiarism software to stop what is rampant theft of intellectual property, and so much more.

(6) Mismanagement especially in government and government-controlled churches, as in Russia, has had a negative effect and with it an escalation in crime and protests.25

Argentine teenage assassin

Argentine teenage assassin

(a) Paid assassins26 are increasing in number, callousness, and indifference to suffering. Many paid assassins find a psychopathic glory in assassinations, seeing the USA and the West as a feeder from which to gain wealth and power.27 In Third World nations, children hired as assassins for pennies, is becoming increasingly common especially in South American nations such as Argentina and Perú (especially in Callo and Lima, with a rise in Chiclayo and Trujillo) where, as Gonzales Poza wrote “Niños sicarios y la reina de la fiesta” where many of the children turn to earning money by killing anyone because “las cuales viven en unas condiciones de desnutrición y miseria”.28 Paid child assassins are common in Mexico, Argentina, and Columbia (where people employ between 5000 and 14,000 children at any one time to kill family members, rivals, for any variety of reasons), as well, as small children to teenagers are viewed as “representing a low-cost, expendable labor source that is less likely to attract attention from law enforcement. Youngsters living in poverty are lured with promises of money or status, or manipulated with drugs.”29

Male prostitution

Male prostitution

(b) Prostitutes who uses drugs or narcotics to disable, drugs, or kills the client before robbing the victim.30 While religious communities, faiths, and leaders, along with conservative political notables try to focus on female prostitution, few are willing to admit that it also includes a spectacular rise in male prostitutes that work for both female and male customers; and, as Panamericana TV Perú documented, prostitutes now solicit business from all ages and are sex workers of all ages, including women in Lima, Perú on Calle Argentina and elsewhere (especially near military bases) who range from ages seven to 75. Male prostitutes tend to make more money more rapidly as there no fear of pregnancy, although concern over sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is still a concern for many clients.

(c) Mafia leader for various reasons. This last proposition must be debated, as criminal elements in Chiclayo also rob banks and other businesses that have security guards who have guns—but do not use them because (1) thieves openly bribe corrupt police and underpaid guards not to interfere or stop a robbery31 (2) Guards extort money from the entering criminal element not to interfere32  (3) Vigilantes and police are equally culpable of criminal sentiments by having required civilians to give them some money so as not to be harmed or given a traffic violation, etc.33

Once exhortations are listed and subfields extended and delineated, the writer can ascertain a meticulous methodology and a successful strategy for writing the thesis.34 or substantive issues that are not provable, such as infallibility and virgin birth (except for parthenogenesis that occurs in some insects and flowers).

Genuine research has a set methodology35 When the candidate for the degree can prove knowledge-ability, discernment, and intelligence in each proposition of the thesis or dissertation, questions can be phrased exactly. For example, when interviewing a robber who is poor, the most common question that many sociologists query is: “What caused your poverty”.  Responses include: (1) family has always been poor: inheritance, (2) no job skills / lack of education either technical or academic, (3) work is unavailable due to depressed economic conditions, (4) perceived wrong gender, race, or other external factors: racism, (5) too old or too young: ageism, (6) and so forth.36

Young people behind bars seldom serve their sentence before becoming involved in violence.

Young people behind bars seldom serve their sentence before becoming involved in violence.

From the question: “What caused your poverty”, hybrid interrogatives can enhance the original query by the sociologist asking: Why did you select robbery as your means of escaping poverty (the modus operandi). The person being interview may reply: (1) it is easier than other ways of gaining money, i.e. paid assassinations, prostitution, entrapment and extortion, and so forth, or (2) it is fast and does not require standing in queues waiting for a job interview: unemployment,37 (3) if caught, incarceration time is less than for selling or delivering narcotics,38 (4) dropping out of school,39 (5) and so forth.40

Some questions will never be answered unless the informant is paid or given something.  Answers gained in exchange for money or under threat of torture or other forms of violence cannot be relied on as they are the product of intimidation, as the unholy Inquisition learned in the fifteenth to sixteenth century.  Extracted confessions are usually worthless41 as the victim states only what the interrogator wants to hear and does not confess facts that can be proved, validated, or authenticated.

The answers that are given must be compared to and with other respondents’ comments, to trial records, attorney notes, and judicial judgments. If some questions are deemed critical to the thesis or dissertation, the best solution is to rephrase the questions so that they are not intimidating, demeaning, aspersions, asperating or aspirating. 42

 

Critical Reading

Critical reading is more than reading for content. Critical reading requires the reader to make judgments of what is read: how well the information is presented, if the information is reliable and can be tested, and if it is objective.43 If what is read is a standard work, is it reliable?

Most standard works that have weathered time are not critically written. For example, most early universal histories start with the myth of creation—yet no deity can be scientifically proven to exist or not to exist. The creation epic spans from the time of Cronus and Zeus44 breaking a large vase that flew across the void and became planets and stars, to an Iraqi gardener taking care of a garden in the delta of the Ur walking through it after creating Eden and the universe in six days, and so forth.45 Belief is private and personal. It is neither scientific nor objective and can neither be proven nor disproven.46

Critical reading encourages taking notes, highlighting limited amounts of texts, and discovering if the writer’s arguments can be refuted.47 Refutations occur either by observing an absence of facts or the existence of distorted facts or myths made into facts.48

Look for the purpose or the central claims of what you are reading—they are the thesis. If there is no thesis point the work may be a polemic or paltry prose.49

Determine who the text was written for and then ask yourself why it was written.  A careful reading of the words as units, not as phrases or sentences, but individual lexemes, for what each morpheme  says will tell the true scholar if the text is verifiable or a patent polemic pandering to win control over the mind of the listener. If the text has only one theory or one identifying point it is not reliable. All arguments must be presented. No argument must be left unchallenged.50

What disciplines are used in the work that is read? Good books incorporate all disciplines: history, literature, sociology, law, and so forth for all subject matter.51 Neither the world nor the writer is composed of only one substance and holding only one idea. No person has ever been infallible in any way or about any topic and those who claim to be infallible in any way are absolute fools, and the scholar, intellectual giants like Stephen Hawking, will ignore them.

No book is absolute nor are the characters or incidents in one book fact if their existence is not attested by other written or pictographic source at the same time.  Even the ancient Greeks knew that the word βιβλία meant books (plural, not the singular βιβλίο that referred to a singular reference or book), and frequently would be countered by opposing διαλόγους: dialogues or interlocutions or colloquies that enjoined various theories or initiated new matriculations of ideas (δέες θέμα) and themes (θέμα).  Even the gods were not infallible, as Socrates taught, as they, too, made mistakes.52

Any work that is written void of original material at the time the work is discussed, that work has no value. The good, the bad, the ugly and the beautiful both merit time in all good formats of academic writing.

If the book studied is judgmental and accuses people, places, or records of bias or conjecture, is there a counterweight? If not, the book is meritless.53  If there are gaps in time, or ideas, the book is printed fraud.

No book can be a history or even a record if a significant period of time is ignored or the claim is made either in writing or popular belief that there is an obscure era that has no record, be it for forty-days and forty-nights, or over a 20 or 30 year period of time “of which there is no record” or the wandering of people for 40 years,54, as reality shows that even in the infamous “Dark Ages” (no one living then saw themselves in a “troubled time” or fearing the “end time” that was to be apocalyptic except for the few religious who spent their time studying the writings of madmen and pondering on a destiny of destruction, so graphically presented by Umberto Eco in his classic Il Nome Della Rosa) had records, people met, married, procreated, murdered, and wrote songs, poems, and so forth. Even the great fire spread before the feet of the Emperor Constantine I after his Creed of Nicaea was adopted by his docile bishops, a word taken from Ẻπίσκοπος, epískopos,55 did not silence dissent.

Dissent was strong and brought with it murder, hunger, and heresy hunts especially with the novel idea of ordaining “bishops” that were born from legend that came with the non-Christian self-styled apostle Saul of Tarsus and the creation of letters to Timothy in Ephesus (1Timothy 1:3), and to Titus in Crete (Titus 1:5),56 that has little credibility as to authenticity similar to the Paul of the New Testament who is a retread of Jesus and Old Testament prophecy,57 from ascending to heaven where he saw “unspeakable” things: 2 Corinthians 12:1-4, Saul, attempting to imitate Jesus of the Gospel of Mark, claimed to work miraculous signs, wonders, etc.: 2 Corinthians 12:7-10.  Like the Gospels that make no mention of Jesus’ matrimonial status or if he even liked women since he was always with me, Saul of Tarsus claims that he was unmarried during his ministry: 1 Corinthians 7:8, 15; 9:5; and Philippians 3:8.  Like Jesus, Saul was only around men and his most frequent companion was male, much like Jesus” Beloved (who some claim was John, others state it was Jesus’ brother James). These dissenting views, as all opposing opinions must be recognized, categorized, catalogued, investigated and authenticated—not blindly accepted, although wars were waged, millions of lives lost in quest of obtaining common agreement and the suppression or investigation, research, and counterpointed writing.58

Outside of The Book of Acts, the first historical reference to Paul does not appear before the late second-century in the Christian apology The Acts of Paul and Thelca. The apologia is but a fantasy.  There is no reference to its contents or to Paul before that time, except for a ghostly vague reference by the unreliable Ignatius of Antioch.59

Pagan (country or farming, but sometimes a reference to those who refused to give up far older and stronger religions that were attacked by Constantine I’s warrior bishops) mythology overtakes the sayings of Jesus of the New Testament and man becomes a god in the same way as the “bishops” and emperors who are “after the likeness of god”.60 The word in play for bishop (Ẻπίσκοπος) actually meant a guardian or overseer and was a subject advocate for the Emperor who entrusted the man because he was married and knew his future lay with the safety of the empire.

Neither the emperor, the bonfires that destroyed numerous original works (most had been copied and spirited out of Nicaea) did not end the writings or copying of the words of Arius or other great thinkers who rejected not only the divinity of Jesus but questioned his mortality or the Trinity (a theory initiated hundreds of years before Jesus in Egypt) as with the Sabellians (after the theologian and priest Sabellius in the third century CE)  who saw the Heavenly Father, Resurrected Son and Holy Spirit as different modes or aspects of one monadic God; there is no Biblical foundation for a Trinity that was introduced much later by Egyptian Christians, using the word πρόσωπα or prosopa, meaning a mask or characteristic as justification, but that does not appear anywhere in the canons, save for a vague reference that is undoubtedly a much later gloss in Matthew 28:16-20, 2 Corinthians 13:14 and 1 John 5:761 (2nd Edition), Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, pages 647-649), any more than the treacherous Inquisition was able to silence the alleged heresy of the Waldensians (also known as the Waldenses, Vallenses, or Vaudois that began in Lyon, France in the late 1170s), the Dolcinites (or Dulcinians who followed Fra Dolcino, and whose people were executed for heresy by being executed by dismemberment), nor any other people, who challenged unbending and irrational authority, that carries over to this day with blind obedience to the least intellectually bright who preach psuedo-gospels in various fields62

Critical reading requires stringent, strict and sensible evaluation of the sources and solid sentry standards.63 If the material is part of a polemic—an article that has a decided interest in how its information is read and understood—it has little value to critical scholarship. However, it can be sited for its bias and the unprovable aspects exposed and detailed in quest of genuine scientific research, and the thesis writer use it to show that bias and how it can be discounted, disproven, and discharged.

When any quotation is taken from any text, it must be done so critically. Critical citations require that the exact words read are cited and reprinted as they appear in the original text. If the author does not agree with the quotation, that writer must reveal judgments being made about the quotation and back up those judgments with plausible and verifiable authentication of those reasons by researchable texts, noting which original texts were not used in the quotation and show they were either taken out of context or wrongfully mistranslated, or misused.

 

Critical Writing

Once that critical reading is completed, codified, catalogued and categorized, the critical thinker puts together a critical essay,  A critical essay must include comparisons and contrasts of what was written and/or done before the current composition, what sources were used and/or ignored, popular reaction to the earlier coverage and by whom with what background.64 This requires a detailed, developed and differentiating list of comparisons and contrasts based on theme, concern, text and textual criticism, figures, events, positions on issues, or devices common to all previous writing and works from which the current writer is drawing similarities and differences, challenges and responses, and advocating or denying the plethora of possibilities, including arguments to persuade.65 Even the phrases, terms or words similarities and differences must be separated and spelled out, for what is similar to one person’s thinking may be starkly different to another individual. For example, in Great Expectations,66 the true gentleman is not a man of manner but of morality, while in The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, the true gentleman is a man who is hard working and productive.67

Critical writing also uses alternating patterns: showing that which is, that which was, that which is hoped for, and that which began it all.68 Generally, it is chronological: that which began it all, that which was, that which is, that which is hoped for or might be or will be: as in grammar, past, present, and future.

In a critical academic work, the alternations between subjects can be arranged by topics within chronology: the reality of religious intolerance in the evangelical colonies of New England compared and contrasted to the rigid system of Jean Calvin’s Geneva69 or the High Church control of seventeenth century England,70 the intolerance of the twentieth and twenty-first century Southern evangelical communities in the USA compared with the intolerance of fundamentalist evangelical Christianity in Uganda or Nigeria,71 in contrast with Sharia Islam in Iraq and Saudi Arabia or the Muslim hold in Indonesia, to the futuristic tolerance promised by those who forecast a one-world religion as with the New Apostolic Reformation72 preached by Texas Governor Rick Perry.

This tends to be more interesting to more advanced readers and those accustomed to critical thinking, but it is mark that is quite obscure and threatening to those with a more modest education and seek things compartmentalized by discussing US history first, then UK history, and have separate chapters on other nations such as Uganda and Nigeria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Indonesia. The issue breaks down to topical,73 chronological,74, and descriptive,75

This is popular with slanted history, as with the documents of the early Church: all are apologetic and defend the established canon ruled on by Constantine I, with dissent not allowed to any degree76 There are others who issued polemics, but there has not been a single author, with the possible exception of Eusebius of Cesaraea who actually wrote with scientific precision about a subject he was a part of in history.  Nearly all of these praised writers are seen as authorities for the early Church, but not a one offers proof, shares details, cites unbiased sources or is able to separate fantasy from fact.  In short, nearly 100% of the early Christian writings are unreliable polemics or apologia. None are historically accurate as there are no contemporary records or papers that support a thing the others passed around as if they were breaking bread.  The greatest fraud being Gelasius of Cyzicus, Historia Concilii Nicaeni.77

Latin was used as a common vulgar/street language according to common need. Greek remained the preferred language.

There was no Latin Bible at the time of Constantine. What Christians, those who follow Paul and ignore the Jesus of the New Testament (as every evangelical, and nearly every Pauline-based church) call The Bible did not exist. Instead what became the Bible was at best a collection of more than fifteen gospels, various serious of letters, and conjectures, that the Emperor of the Roman Empire went through and deleted and tried to have all copies burned before creating his Greek Bible (c. 331 CE).

The Bible was not translated into Latin until much later as its translator was a Greek who wrote to put it into the vernacular of ill-trained priests: Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; his Greek name was: Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος, that was Latinized as Jerome. Jerome was born in 347 CE and was one of the earliest followers of Paulinity (the teaching of Paul, replacing the teaching of Jesus of the Gospels).  Jerome’s Bible, the Vulgate, has numerous antecedents:  the Codex Vaticanus, that has no stylistic impact on the Vulgate,78 and to a lesser degreeh the Codex Sinaiticus.   Many of what are today’s  popular phrases cited from the modern bibles did not exist in the either the Codex Vaticanus or in the Codex Sinaiticus.79 The Codex Sinaiticus was written in the fourth century CE, like many other bibles. Distortions in text and plagiarisms on parchments are seen clearly to the eye of the philologist and linguist,  as with Matthew 5:44 – εὐλογεῖτε τοὺς καταρωμένους ὑμᾶς, καλῶς ποιεῖτε τοῖς μισοῦσιν ὑμᾶς (bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you),  Then, too, there is Matthew 10:37b – καὶ ὁ φιλῶν υἱὸν ἢ θυγατέρα ὑπὲρ ἐμὲ οὐκ ἔστιν μου ἄξιος (and he who loves son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me) as found on the Codex Bezae. Matthew 15:6 – ἢ τὴν μητέρα (αὐτοῦ) (or (his) mother) is another addition, as is Matthew 20:23 – καὶ τὸ βάπτισμα ὂ ἐγὼ βαπτίζομαι βαπτισθήσεσθε (and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with).  What is important is for whom the writer is writing.80

The paucity of impoverished scholarship in the area of Biblical studies concentrates on the mistranslations and pseudo-translations that appear especially in Gideon and Watchtower editions.  Words that did not exist before the middle of the nineteenth century now appear in Bibles printed after 1945/1954 and are hailed as being authentic whereas they are spurious, dubious and with little in common with the more ancient writings.  It is the corrupt versions that have led to calls for genocide by false preachers such as Scott Lively, Billy Graham, Timothy Dolan, Bryan Fischer, James Dobson, Patriarch Kirill and the entire Russian Orthodox Church, the majority of priests and bishops in the Roman Catholic Church, and others–who believe in their swelling tsunami of numbers that they are correct and everyone else is wrong. They are like the Inquisitions from Constantine to Josef Ratzinger, arguing that all disagreement is wrong and vowing an unholy crusade against opposition so that their personal fortunes increase and their dreamed of hell on earth, a theocracy longed for by the mentally unstable Rick Santorum of Pennsylvania, Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne of Perú, and Francis George of Chicago, will come to pass.  The New Apostolic Reformation is already planning on a new Holocaust, determined to awaken a sleeping Jesus and force him to return to the water planet Earth wielding a drawn sword to slice and separate families and communities in an Armageddon: a universal war where those who do not follow the warrior Jesus of Matthew 10:34 will be hacked to pieces: Muslims, Buddhists, Jews, and all others who do not proclaim the poor man of invention Lord of Lords and King of Kings.

 

Succinct Academic Writing

Once the subject has presented usable and verifiable information, the writing of the thesis or dissertation can begin.81 What sets the thesis or dissertation apart from creative prose is the fact that academic writing is never “overly general” but is focused directly upon the topic and words are used with precision and care.

Scholarly,82 or academic, writing uses formal rhetorical basis for word choice, word inclusion, word order, and deletes or ignores such modernisms as contractions, jargon, colloquialisms and popular phrases unless they are incorporated in a study of modern idioms. The correct use of words is essential so that the topic is not obfuscated, as with the misinterpretation or erroneous interpretation disguised as translation and incorrectly interrelated with interpretation mean the same thing. Grammar is precision oriented so that not a word can be misinterpreted or wrongfully crafted to lead the reader down a behemoth labyrinth of casual carelessness.

Scholarly writing states its objective clearly, concisely, completely, and correctly. It details the significance of what was investigated, researched, catalogued and studied. It has rigid organization with sufficient detail so that any other scholar is able to replicate the results with open access to data gathered by the original inscriber. Authentic scholarship welcomes and includes intertextuality in combining past writings of earlier thinkers into original new text by the author of the thesis or dissertation who gives full accreditation to the originator of the subject, as Charles Darwin did when acknowledging the original studies on evolution by the French naturalist Jean Lamarck.83

In the case of intertextuality, there are two distinct phases or formats: interability and presupposition:

Interability is the ability or capability of the current writer to reinterate the text of a former writer by repeating it in various contexts and the use of interchangeable words, as seen in the similarity of words and word order in various constitutions of different governments in different epochs and centuries.  It is reiteration used with enhancements of words and phrases so that more precise meaning can be known and understood.  It is not the transmogrification of a word to make it monstrous or rejecting its true intent. For example: Thomas Jefferson borrowed liberally from John Locke’s Social Contract as he did from the Persian Emperor Cyrus (منشور کوروش‎) the Great, sixth century BCE) from whom, it is frequently claimed, Jefferson borrowed the substance of the Bill of Rights,84 although this is a misunderstanding of the text because of inadequate to false and erroneous translation skills (mistranslation).85

The actual, final writing process, after all preliminary drafts have been scrutinized, corrected, collated and assembled in a logical order, must reflect critical reading, planning, researching, writing style based on the manual of style for whom the article, thesis, dissertation, or other composition is intended for, as well as editing, grammar and punctuation. Organization of the paper comes in the prewriting stage, coming long before the actual finished or polished writing stage. Planning includes the type of composition that may or may not be a compare-contrast exercise, or one that includes critical reasoning from hypothesis to thesis, presenting a fresh problem and new and unexpected critical solutions.

Points must be well-defined and each reference point is entitled to its own paragraph or paragraphs that are joined logically with transitional words or phrases. Bad writing, non-academic writing is the result of slopping organization and weak format with paragraphs disorganized and discombobulated as if they were “jumping around” with no recognizable direction.

Presuppositions occur when an investigator, researcher and writer of an academic thesis assumes something before the facts are in.  These preconditions must be satisfied and accepted or rejected upon their viability and plausibility before any writing can commence.  The writer’s argument must be set out initially in the thesis statement, telling the reader what is the perceived problem, the approach to the solution, and the possible outcome by exercising the tactics required to achieving victory in the presentation of subject matter. The words selected to convey the ideas, assumptions and tactics of the author must be intriguing—never irrelevant or trite as that pulls the thesis down past even an elementary level composition. It is at this introductory point that the writer gives the methodology to his or her argument that is emphatically upheld and void of vague and/or vulgar generalities and emotionalism indicating that the author is too close to the material for the material to be trustworthy as with NOM tie with Mark Regnerus of The University of Texas at Austin whose credibility as a sociologist was forever lost by his sloppy methodology, prepaid conclusions and the inclusion of his personal religious ideology in his research.86

Since a research paper must be objective, personal opinions, prejudgments and insights must be avoided, and the entire paper must tie tightly to the subject investigated in the thesis statement. A thesis statement, by professional standards is a single sentence regardless of how many words there must be at least two: a noun and a verb), or clauses are used in that statement, and only under the rarest of circumstances can a thesis statement be a paragraph.  One paragraph thesis statements occur only when the author of the thesis has a complex argument and needs a tightly-knit paragraph to make the initial statement position.

Once that the thesis statement is complete, correct and concrete, the second step is writing a quality introduction that must identify the topic, provide essential and critical contextual information and perambulations of thought that indicate the writer’s focus and direction in the writing process to express the singular cohesiveness of the essay. Without a qualifying, quantifying, and quality introduction to an essay, it is impossible to write a good text to and for the essay itself (it is tantamount to having a stomach that has left-over undigested food but no mouth to allow food to enter to join what is in the stomach, and no intestines to release the digested elements so that the stomach explodes in a detritus debris of worthless material. Most puerilities that appear as an introduction occupy less than one-half to two-thirds of a single page and give concrete foundation on which to build the thesis if it is more than five or six pages—but that is a report or essay and not a thesis. Customarily, a twenty page paper requires a two page introduction, while a thesis of more than 100 pages normally can be introduced by ten pages.

 

Attracting the Reader’s Attention

Among the methods that can be successfully used to attract and maintain a reader’s attention is the use of charts, diagrams, embedded sound and visual recordings, and photographs.  It is imperative that this material can be viewed or listened to by responsible peer groups, and that it is available for testing for veracity and clarity.

To introduce an historical person or issue is acceptable if the individual or issue can be reviewed, tested, ascertained as to the significance of the subject in light of the theme of the thesis, and if there is more than one account that can be scrutinized.  This is why I introduced Patriarch Kirill of the Russian Orthodox Church as the records are available, the secretariat of the church did admit to the photograph of the patriarch’s disappearing watch was real, and the registration for Kirill’s yachts finalize what was taken as photographs.  When such material is used, the reason for its importance must be stated, and example of continuity given.

A solid, substantial and sturdy, sterling-quality conclusion provides the reader a sense of closure to the essay and places within the reader’s mind knowledge of the concepts that the author is extending in the words of the essay. This allows the reader to feel a part of the research and writing, and affirms that the reader understands, comprehends, and interprets aligned to the focus of the author.

To be dramatic and even alarming, the writer should consider using a startling statistic or the revelation of a facet not commonly considered in conversation or classroom conversation, calculation or the dynamics of discovery to further knowledge and its contents that illustrates the serious nature of the problem being addressed and forces the mind of the reader to willing pursue the information contained in the volume.87  This enhancement is usually taught in honors classes where students learn to think outside of textbooks and beyond pulpit preaching and general consensus in quest of ascertaining what is real and what is hand-me-down theories and theological utterances. The denouement of the pronouncement can be anticlimactic when weighed against the ultimate culmination of the argument, but motivate the mind to seek the information contained in the descriptive parts and ultimate completion of the thesis.

A healthy, hearty, heavily impregnated introduction leads the reader through the labyrinth of thought that has existed from its alpha through the omega of time, thought and scientific discovery, hallmarking the ultimate ascent of reason. To give stature and strength to this initiation of information in the initial introductory sentence can easily be achieved by quoting an expert by first introducing the specialist through prefacing the authority’s findings by a recitation of solid contributions made by the master doyen gifted with especial insights in the field. Buttress this herald of new thought and the exposure of reality by mentioning a common or crass misconception or false perception that you state your thesis will counter with an argument against the vulgar delusion and fallacy fed to others by untrained minds. Do this by illustrating with background information, using a brief narrative or anecdote to exemplify your reason for choosing the topic you are about to present in written formal format, and then citing facts fully substantiated by the scientific method.

An academic thesis requires material and conclusions that are scientifically based and can be challenged by anyone in the writer’s specialty and does not call for personal private opinions and interpretations, to document real-world scenarios, facts, and proven theories (especially those that discredit any unprovable belief system).88 If this is an introduction to a scientific paper, it is wise to extend and explain essential and fundamental scientific concepts and refer to relevant literature before introducing your own contribution or intervention that lead to a full fulcrum of fact that is not fractured by fantasies fortified by time and misinterpretations of the nexus of reality eschewed for primitively personal reasons that weigh-down would be learners.

There is one exception in academic writing that must be stated, and that is the weight of technical papers where all terms and words are not fully understood by all audiences.89 When it comes to technical papers, the author must address and define each technical term that threads through the discourse and presentation especially if the term or phrase is central and critical to understanding the essay and the subject matter. In all cases there are select but critical caveats for the writer to excogitate and resolve ruminating on the rights and rites of all parties as if swinging a golden jewel-encrusted ensenser to call upon judgment to those without a true thurible, as was commonly used in ancient Middle Eastern civilizations to chart the course of passing into a new enlightenment,90 exposing what others chose to ignore.

 

Critical Composition

When the scholar-writer introduces words that are not commonly known, it is a grave error to proffer dictionary definitions that give a cursory, popular, and usually vulgar, definition. The scholar-writer must never define words that the audience already knows, unless the author is correcting a popular translation and definition that has nothing to do or relationship with words that have changed meaning and thereby alters words of contemporary use today from what the word originally meant. When this happens, there is nothing critical about the composition.91 This is especially seen in the inappropriate use of words and phrases that have no germane reason to be included in any critical composition, as found within most intimate languages, such as with the word homo.

Homo actually refers to the genus of bipedal primates that includes modern mortals as well as several distinct but extinct forms that are or were distinguished by their large brains and a dependence upon tools from hammers to computers. The word homo is ancient Latin and refers, in Old Latin, to the earth and the idealized origin of mortals who were raised from the earth (man technically means “earthly one” or one from the earth). Only with the emergence of modern languages, after 413 CE, does homo become a word for “man” as with the Lithuanian žmónės.92 The misuse of words and the deliberate transmogrification of meaning of words, common in most countries but especially vile in the Russian Orthodox community, leads to a deliberate misunderstanding among people and resulting harm, an intolerable attack on scholarship and the right to knowledge and freedom for the conduct of inquiry.

 

Paragraphs in Composition

Writing the thesis requires that each paragraph use a topic sentence that is explicit, exact, expressive, and patently precise.93 The topic sentence in academic writing works best at the beginning of the paragraph so that each reader knows what to expect. A topic sentence give cohesion to the entire essay as the topic sentence is the sentence that explains what the rest of the paragraph is about and how it interrelates with the rest of the commentary.94

A topic sentence must be written carefully, concisely, and cogently, showing how it contributes to the rest of the paragraph and to the thesis directly.95 If the topic sentence only restates the thesis itself, it means that either the paragraph, or worse: the entire thesis is redundant and needs to be reformatted or redone.

If you have several topic sentences that each restate the thesis sentence, then the thesis itself is repetitive and without value. Not only must the topic sentence(s) be rewritten, but the information for that paragraph scrutinized and repetitive material removed and new information added. Once the topic sentence is superiorly crafted, the writer can concentrate on each correlative paragraphs.96

Correlative Paragraphs

Correlative paragraphs build on each other.97 Each paragraph must develop and demonstrate what the topic sentence of the paragraph introduces, and is tied to the previous and the succeeding paragraph with transitional words and phrases that herald the general theme.

Within each paragraph new words are introduced, definitions made, and distinctions indicated with details, examples, and relevant quotations. It is at this juncture that the author of the thesis can introduce his or her observations, projections, and comments to strengthen the investigation and research done and lead toward a stated conclusion or solution. Comments must be relevant and easily tested, flowing in a logical sequence that shows the connections between the past, present and prognostication into the future with a recognizable pattern of energized details and clear causal interrelationships as well as an effective pattern of contrasts that are explained and exemplified as well as amplified.

 

Connections, Conjunctions, and Transitions

Connections must always be clearly indicated and stated, and the logic demonstrating the connections must be logical, verifiable, and repeatable.98 Here transitions are imperative to show the clarity of thought and free-flow of words and ideas.99 For example, the erudite scholar will write:

If the goal of government is to communicate effectively with its voters, the legislators must view the people of the nation not only as Peruvians but as members of a world community. As a nation, the Peruvian people must recognize that everyone has the same responsibilities and rights, opportunities and responsibilities, and move toward a national consensus of opinion and action. Each year we must labor to make a strong nation, united as a single force, not divided into factions that deny the identity of the people as a whole.

Clear academic writing uses words to reinforce ideas, such as: for example, in other words, moreover, and so forth. Officially conjunctions tie together clauses and ideas.

To enable readers to see the turn to different ideas and a change in mapping out an argument or countering a previous presentation by another thinker, certain words are employed carefully. These, too, are conjunctions, but more powerful as they are emphatic words: (1) but, (2) instead, (3) yet, (4) nevertheless, (5)  in contrast to, (6) on the other hand, and so forth.

Clarity of Expression

Achieving clarity of expression and understandability of thought and comprehension of the intent and content of words requires that paragraphs have various lengths.100 Long paragraphs make prose dull and dense, and for most people, at least the less educated, unpleasant to read and difficult to understand.

If a paragraph works well as two or more shorter paragraphs—keeping in mind that all paragraphs must have at least two sentences—then shorten the paragraph.  Link these paragraphs with transitional words, phrases, and thoughts.

Dividing a paragraph can seem an over-weighted burden, tiresome, troublesome, and undesirable. While it must be done at times, do it where separations make sense in logical places: where the text focus shifts from one emphasis to another, or where the topic goes from one issue to another. A significant indicator that a paragraph is too long is if it has more than eighteen words in a sentence and there are only two sentences. An ideal sentence has seven to ten words. Long sentences can easily be cut into parts.

Punctuation

Most long sentences can be separated or divided into parts using appropriate punctuation. Where conjunctions are overused, enter a period (or other punctuation mark, such as using the semicolon to indicate clauses) and begin a new sentence.

Instead of writing: A student can understand punctuation when each punctuation mark is identified and examples are given that indicates the value of that mark.

Rewrite this too-long sentence this way: A student understands punctuation when each mark is identified and described.

For a few examples: Use a(n)

period when a thought is completed. (Ide, p. 59).

exclamation mark to tell the reader that a surprise has or will happen. ( Ide, p 48).

semicolon joins two or more clauses

question mark when an interrogation is complete—is it? (Ide, p 73, 64).

colon before a definition, explanation, or list, capitalizing the first letter after the colon. (Ide, p 14).101

 

Conclusion

Never use a conclusion to summarize points made in the thesis nor use a conclusion to restate the thesis. Such action is not only redundant but academic fraud.

Use a select set of fresh words to many any reiteration, revise the language, and push a more pregnant presentation crisply. Conclusions must reflect on what was presented and why the text is significant and valuable to solicit retention and reiteration.

The last sentence of any conclusion must be the strongest sentence in the thesis. The last thesis sentence must leave the reader with something to think about, a concept to consider, and a light to illuminate thoughts on what the writer has presented and become an inspiration to do similar research to test and target the thesis itself. As for the length of a conclusion, one paragraph is the minimum, remembering that no paragraph is ever composed of a single word or a single sentence. This paragraph must consist of no less than fifty tightly fitted and strongly defined words if it is but a modest and short thesis.

Conclusions may have, and usually do have, more than a single paragraph to state the finality of what was written. When the thesis has sufficiently and fully explored the topic, the conclusion should reflect what is written in no less than ten and no more than fifteen pages. At the same time, the conclusion must highlight what is new, detail how the new information will enhance life, and where the reader can find more material to challenge the thesis itself and thus advance learning and educated arguments. To achieve these goals the thesis author must warn the readers of the thesis of the possible consequences that will be the readers and the world’s if they do not pay attention to any warning within the pages of the thesis, as with Al Gore’s monumental work on global warming.

Al Gore cautioned those who read his book102 on global warming that unless swift action is taken the topography, geology, geography, and climatology will change severely to the harm of all. The issue is still being debated with many degreed (not educated) people arguing that global warming is a myth and that some unknown hand or energy will set the world right.103 His arguments were strengthened with dire warnings, impact words, and careful pruning of documents and incorporating the message others had pushed for decades unsuccessfully.

It is at this point that the writer must unveil and unleash his or her most vital and critical statistic that will enable the reader to see and pay attention to what was said within the work. It can be a refutation of popular speakers, politicians, or academics, but such refutations fail if the researcher has not marshaled and has under control substantial facts to support the refutation. These broadsides to be cast in an intellectual war of words must be solid, verifiable, and authentic without emotionalism or bias.

Most academic writing is ignored in favor of popular mythology because academic writing is found to be boring, stilted, and out of touch with the average person. To that end it is the obligation of the academic writer to author a paper or thesis so that it can be read by the greatest group of people if there is to be change. Detailed academic material, such as this paper, will never reach that level of inclusiveness given the difficulty of the language and rather boring aspects of the researched topic. The academic must admit his or her own shortcomings as well as those of the research paper, but not all research papers are meant for mass production. If they are or will be, the author can reform, reedit, rewrite, reissue and revitalize the paper by seeking a more elementary level of writing, but that does nothing to raise the level of understanding or maturity and continues the myth of popular sovereignty of those less educated. What the academic research/scientific paper must do is increase the desire to learn, raise the bar higher on subject matter, and encourage a more civilized society that not only masters and understands words and concepts, but uses them regularly and with vigor, leading to a more idealized and hope-filled world: a grand goal but one that has the possibility of being achieved if all work together to ensure the mastery of education, and recognition of equality in all people.

 

Recommendations

If there is to be a truly educated mass, the standards of education must be raised, not lowered. Subjects must be learned through discussion and debate, not blindly memorized as if all knowledge was from one book or bible. Teachers are fallible—as are people everywhere. Students must study, read, write, listen, and analyze not just in the classroom but at all times.

Writers must make what they write interesting, captivating, worthwhile as well as enjoyable by entering the garden of knowledge, eating from the tree of wisdom, and passing the fruit of inquiry, questioning, reasoning, and rationalism to those who seek to share in its produce. Publishers must release good books that teach, not just earn money for fleeting fame. It is a Catch-22 proposition.104

 

Bibliography (Selected from essay:

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Binaj, R.; Primož, J. (2012). Experiences and Expectations of Undergraduates in Using Library Resources: the Case of Social Sciences Students at University of Tirana: A Census Survey. Ljubljana, Albania.

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End notes

[13.

  1. Clower, K. (1991). Writing for the Social Sciences: the Abstract. New York: Insight Media.
  2. McPhee, J. (1985). Table of Contents. New York: NY: Farrar Straus Giroux.
  3. Tang, R. (2012).  Academic Writing in a Second or Foreign Language: Issues and Challenges Facing ESL/EFL Academic Writers in Higher Education Contexts. London, UK: Continuum International Publishers. Panhuis, Dirk G. J. (1982). The Communicative Perspective in the Sentence: A Study of Latin Word Order. Amsterdam, Nederlands: J. Benjamins. Van den Brandt, C.; Landelijk Onderzoekschool Taalwetenschap. (1999). Context Use and Learning to Read in a Foreign Language. The Hague, Nederlands: Holland Academic Graphics. Al-Kenai, J. B. S. (1985). Some Linguistic and Cultural Problems of English-Arabic Translation and Their Implications for a Strategy of Arabization. Unpublished doctoral dissertation: University of Glasgow, Scotland.
  4. Thornton, M. (1999). Fear of Writing. (Philadelphia, PA): Xlibris.
  5. Rosenberg, A. Ledley, D. R.; Heimberg, R. G. (2010) “Social anxiety disorder.” http://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/12070-004 in McKay, D. (Ed); Abramowitz, J. S. (Ed); Taylor, S. (Ed) (2010). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for refractory cases: Turning failure into success. (pp. 65-88). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, xxiii, 432 pp.
  6. They are either at www.highereducation.com or the Chronicle of Higher Education (online: http://chronicle.com/section/Home/5) or elsewhere on the Internet.
  7. Carter, S.; Kelly, F.; Brailsford, I. (2012). Structuring Your Research Thesis. Houndsmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. Rosenwasser, D.; Stephen, J. (2012). Writing Analytically. Boston, MA, USA: Cengage.
  8. Center for Scientific Anomalies Research (1978). Zetetic Scholar. Ypsilanti, MI: M. Truzzi. Cf. Rowbotham, S. B. (1873). Zetetic Astronomy: Earth not a Globe. An experimental inquiry into the true figure of the earth. London, UK: J. B. Day.
  9. Binaj, R.; Primož, J. (2012). Experiences and Expectations of Undergraduates in Using Library Resources: the Case of Social Sciences Students at University of Tirana: A Census Survey. Ljubljana, Albania, with the dissertation being Mag. Delo, Univ. v Ljubljani, Filozofska fak., Oddelek za bibliotekarstvo, informacijsko znanost in knjigarstvo, bolonjski regionalni program. The thesis’ focus is on social science students and library services to encourage investigation, research and academic writing in Albania.
  10. Братья Карамазовы: 1879–1880, chapter 5
  11. Cf. http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2013-06-09/lifestyle/39856564_1_punk-prayer-maria-alyokhina-united-russia with Russian lawyers taking major risks: http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2013-02-05/world/36751703_1_violetta-volkova-nikolai-polozov-protest as the tie between church and state grew stronger in denying basic human rights: http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2013-02-05/world/36751703_1_violetta-volkova-nikolai-polozov-protest.
  12. http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-18560_162-57575885/pussy-riot-punk-band-remains-defiant-of-putins-russia/ for those who oppose this interpolation.
  13. http://motorussians.com/2012/09/patriarch-kirills-yacht-pallada-photos/.
  14. Gregory Vlastos, G. (1983). “The Socratic Elenchus”, Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy I, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. P. 27–58.  Cp. http://ad-orientem.blogspot.com/2013/07/pariarch-kirill-condemns-rise-of-gay.html and http://news.yahoo.com/russia-moves-enact-anti-gay-law-nationwide-125825051.html and http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/06/world/europe/in-russia-a-watch-vanishes-up-orthodox-leaders-sleeve.html/ where even news media exposes the lies of Kirill who lives in a horror-story of an impending apocalypse: http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gay-marriage-a-sign-of-the-apocalypse-russian-patriarch.
  15. Pineda, M. V. (1992). Teorias de la Imitacion en los tratodos retoricos españoles de siglo XVI. Edicion y traducción del dialogo de Imitatione de Sebastian Fox Morcillo. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis—University of Michigan. An excellent example of narrowing the scope of the thesis is in: Déniz, A. A., del Barrio Vega, M. L. (2007). Estudios sobre la aspiración de –s- en los dialectos griegos del I milenio. Madrid, España: Universidad Comlutense de Madrid, Servicio de Publicaciones. Cp. Liu, Fengh-His (1997). Scope and Specificity. Amsterdam, Nederlands: J. Benjamins.
  16. McIntyre Productions (1981). The Research Process. Choosing the Topic.  Kansas City, MO, USA: McIntyre Productions. Budd, John M. (2011). “Meaning, Truth, and Information: Prolegomena to a Theory”. Journal of Documentation. Vol. 67 No. 1: p. 56-74.
  17. Lester, J. D. (1993) Writing Research Papers: A complete Guide. New York, NY: HarperCollins College Publishers. Bailey, J. S., Burch, M. R. (2002). Research Methods in Applied Behavior Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Arkin, M.; Macheski, C. (2001). Research Papers: A Practical Guide. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co. The effectiveness in narrowing the research topic is well illustrated by Lott. M. (2010). Soziodemographische Muster der Qualifikationsstruktur von Erwerbstätigkeit und Unterbeschäftigung. Nürnberg, Deutschland: IAB.
  18. Smeyers, P.; Depaepe, M. (2010). Educational Research: the Ethics and Aesthetics of Statistics. Dordrecht, Deutschland: Springer.
  19. Walcoff. L.; Trimble, M. (2006). Asking the Right Question. Lincoln, NE: GPN Educational Media. Rosenbaum, P. R. (1981). Broad or Narrow Definition of Case: the Question of Statistical Power. Madison, WI, USA: Wisconsin Clinical Cancer Center, Biostatistics, University of Wisconsin – Madison.
  20. Sandefur. G. D.; Tienda, M. (1988). Divided Opportunities: Minorities, Poverty, and Social Policy. New York, NY, USA: Plenum Press. Shihadeh, E. (2009). “Race, Class, and Crime: Reconsidering the Spatial Effects of Social Isolation on Rates of Urban Offending.” Deviant Behavior. Vol. 30. No. 4: p. 349-378.
  21. Hartman, T. (2002). Unequal Protection: the Rise of Corporate Dominance and the Theft of Human Rights. (Emmaus, PA): Rodale.
  22. http://extranosalley.com/?p=36776. For a refutation of this theory, read: Duggan, M. G.; Hjalmarsson, R.; Jacob, B. A. (2008). The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas. Cambridge, MA, USA: National Bureau of Economic Research. The shortcoming of this work is it is restricted to two states and is a weak sampling. Ref. Hass, S. M.; Jefferis; Jarvis, J. P., Turley, E. (2007). “Gun Availability and Crime in West Virginia: An Examination of NIBRS Data.” Justice Research and Policy. Vol. 9. No. 2: p. 139-164. Webster, D. W.; Freed, L. H.; Frattaroli, S.; Wilson, M. H. (2002). “How Delinquent Youths Acquire Guns: Initial versus Most Recent Gun Acquisitions.” Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. Vol. 79. No. 1: p. 60-69.
  23. Eminoğlu, E; Nartün, Z. (2009). “A Scale of Development Study to Measure Academic Dishonesty Tendency of University Students.” International Journal of Human Sciences.
  24. Johnston, M. (2010). “Assessing Vulnerabilities to Corruption.” Public Integrity. Vol. 12, No. 2. (Spring): p. 125-142.
  25. Rakitskii, B. (1994). “The Condition of the Population of Russia: Social Breakdown During the ‘Leap to the Market’.” Problems of Economic Transition. Vol. 36, No. 10 (February): p. 32-43. Zinzhuk, E. G.; Karpukhin, lu. G. (1995). “Juvenile Crimes of Greed”. Russian Education & Society. Vol. 37, No. 5. (May): pp. 62-77.  Crime is especially high among the Russian Orthodox clergy, with the Patriarch Kirill selling more than $2 billion dollars worth of illegal and contraband cigarettes to his young parishioners; read  http://www.russiablog.org/business/ on the tabacco sales dated June 12, 2010; cp. http://www.asianews.it/news-en/Metropolitan-Kirill-is-the-new-Patriarch-of-Moscow-and-All-Russia-14328.html.  It is estimated, conservatively, that less than 2% of all Russian Orthodox priests have not been involved in some criminal activity ranging from extortion to pedophile attacks on young girls and boys: http://www.helleniccomserve.com/sexabuse.html.  Kirill has young girls dance for older Russian Orthodox clergy and Vladimir Putin.  The Russian government and the Russian Orthodox Church led by Kirill does everything possible from exposing this festering sore in the flesh of its clergy, read: http://religiouschildabuse.blogspot.com/2011/01/russian-orthodox-archbishop-fires-head.html; watch http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0rdWEUlIWY0
  26.   Wiesenthal, S.;  Wechsberg, J.;  Sibert, C-H., Trad (1969).  Les Assassins sont parmi nous. (Paris, France): Stock.  Wiesenthal, S.; Wechsberg, J (1967). Moodenaars oodenaars onder ons: bew. Amsterdam, Nederlands: Elsevier.
  27. Perkins, J. (2008). L’histoire secrete de l’empire américain: assassins financiers, chacals et la vérité sur la corruption à l’échelle mondiale. Outremont: Al terre.
  28. Gonzales Poza, R. read more at http://robertogonzalezpoza.com/?tag=children-assassins.
  29. http://www.insightcrime.org/news-briefs/teenagers-working-as-assassins-in-argentina.
  30. http://www.popcenter.org/problems/street_prostitution/. On the misuse of drugs, read: http://digitaljournal.com/article/324779.
  31. Boccia Paz, A.; González, M.A. (1994). Es mi informe: los Archivos secretos de la policía Stroesnner.  Asunción, Paraguay: CDE. Fabián Sain, M. (2004). Politica, policía y delito: la red bonaerense. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Capital Intelectual. Klipphan, Andrés (2004). Asuntos internos: las mafias policiales contadas desde adentro. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Aguilar. Prenzler, T. (2009). Police Corruption: Preventing Misconduct and Maintaining Integrity. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Cf. http://erickeduproducciones.blogspot.com/2012/03/elidio-delincuentes-atacan-en-mancha.html. Roleff, T. L. (2003). Police Corruption. Farmington Hills, MI, USA: Greenhaven Press. Arteaga Botello, N.; López Rivera, A. (1998). Policía y corrupción: el caso de un municipio de México. Mexico, D.F.: Plaza y Valdés.
  32. http://news.naij.com/43621.html and it is the highest in communist China: http://en.minghui.org/emh/articles/2001/11/7/15499.html, and Russia: http://www.happierabroad.com/The_Private_Police_Scam.htm, where the greatest thief and extortionist is the Patriarch of All Russias: Kirill of Moscow: http://rt.com/politics/consumer-watchdog-orthodox-patriarch-840/where the church leader openly accepts bribes to intercede with civil officials if the criminal is considered to regularly attend the Russian Orthodox church (Русская Православная Церковь) and is a supporter of Vladimir Putin who allows Patriarch Kirill to keep part of the plunder of the criminal to buy additional homes.  Interceding for thieves has allowed the patriarch to buy a secret estate on the Black Sea and other resort areas. Read:  http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2012/08/13/a-secret-putin-palace-on-russia-s-black-sea.html.
  33. http://johnyml.blogspot.com/2013/03/police-criminal-nexus-from-protection.html, and http://www.miamiherald.com/2013/01/31/3210502/another-miami-police-officer-criminally.html. Watch at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=svJloSxtL-0, and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9XMwUceJSSQ and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mzJbf79Ic7M.
  34. Each field of study has its own field of study and rigid requirements; for example, in law: Elliot, Hans Lindahl (1985). La sentido del derecho: Elementos para una teoría de la interpretación jurídoca constituída en filosofía delderecho. Unpublished doctoral thesis: Bogotá, Columbia: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Socio-Económicas. In the field of education, read: Carballada Trujillo, L. El uso del método de instrucción de multimedios con un aprendizaje constructivista en el aprovechamiento académico y el desarrollo de las detrezas de solución de problemas a nivel universitario. Universidad Interamericana de Puerto Rico: Metropolitano. In Political Science, consult: Badura, Peter (1959). Die Methoden de neueren allgemeinen Staatslehre. Erlangen, Deutschland: Palm & Enke.  For sociology read: Peise, P. (1984). Gesellschaftliche Problemsynbdrome und sozialwissenschaftlicher Theorie und Praxis. Frankfurt am Main, Deutscheland: Haag + Herchen. Theology is a separate discipline, and one that is not scientific as it relies on past records that cannot be verified because they either do not exist or are copies of copies of originals that are lost especially with the burning of many rare documents by the the Coptic Pope Theophilus who ordered the Christian destruction of the famed Library of Alexandria (391 CE; it is said that it was burned earlier by Julius Cesar in his attempt to catch Ptolemy 48 BCE, but that is more of a rumor started by detractors without substance of proof), or by the pagan Emperor Constantine I in 325 BCE in an effort to buttress his claims of his new foundation,[35. Eusebius, Vita Constantini IV:36-37.
  35. Lehmann, Rainer H-J. (1975). Analytische und kritische Theologie. Hildesheim, Deutschland: Gerstenberg.
  36. McNamara, R. H. (2012). Dimensions of Crime as a Social Problem. Durham, NC, USA: Carolina Academic Press.  Burkhead, M. D. (2006). Watkins, C. (2012). Guns and Crime. Detroit, MI, USA: Greenhaven, Press.  Burkhead, M. D.  (2006). The Search for the Causes of Crime: A History of Theory of Criminology. Jefferson, NC, USA: McFarland & Co.  Tipp, S. L.; Buggey, J. (1991). Causes of Crime: Distinguishing Between Fact and Fiction. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press.  Clark, Ramsey (1970). Crime in America: Observations on its Nature, Causes, Prevention, and Control. New York, NY, USA: Simon and Schuster.
  37. Andersen, Signe Hald (2012).  Unemployment and Crime: Experimental Evidence of the Causal Effects of Intensified ALMPs on Crime Rates among Unemployed Individuals. Odense, Danmark: University Press of Southern Denmark.
  38. Speckart, G. (1984). Narcotics and Crime: A Multiple Multimethod Approach. Unpublished doctoral dissertation: University of California, Los Angeles.  Walters, G. D. (1994). Drugs and Crime in Lifestyle Perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage Publications.
  39. Smale, W.; Tatiana, G. (2012). The Alarming Relations between Early School Leaving and Crime: A Case Study of Twelve Male School Drop-outs who ended up Behind Bars. Lewiston, NY, USA: Edwin Mellen Press.
  40. Asking the right questions can be read at: Brown, G., Wragg, E. C. (1993). Questioning. London, UK: Routledge. Rubin, B. (1978). Questioning Media Ethics. New York: NY, USA: Praeger.  Cp. Ridley, A. M.; Gabbert, F.; La Rooy, D. J. (2012). Suggestability in Legal Contexts: Psychological Research and Forensic Implications. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley. The dropout rate is high in the USA and around the globe for various reasons: read http://rense.com/general92/7000.htm, and http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/education/july-dec12/dropouts_09-24.html.
  41. Thomas, G. C.; Leo, R. A. (2012). Confessions of Guilt: from Torture to Miranda and Beyond. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.  Rejali, Darius (2007). Torture and Democracy. Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton University Press.
  42. Locke, L. F., Waneen Wyrick Spirduson W. W., and Silverman, S. J.  (2007). Proposals that work: a guide for planning dissertations and grant proposals. Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage (this work first appeared in China in 2002, initiated by Jiang Xiang: 論文計劃與硏究方法 (2002). 韋伯文化事業出版社, Taibei Xian Yonghe Shi : Wei bo wen hua shi ye chu ban she; cp. 高玫鍾 (Mei-Chung Kao); 龍世俊 (Shih-Chun Lung) (2004). 香客在寺廟中懸浮微粒曝露濃度之探討. 中華公共衛生雜誌, v19卷 n2期 (200004): 138-143 and the effect of censers on Buddhists). Considered essential reading for all Ph.D. candidates is Foss, Sonja K., and William Joseph Condon Waters. (2007). Destination Dissertation: a Traveler’s Guide to a Done Dissertation.  Lanham (UK). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  43. King, M. L.; Ellinger, B. D.; Wolf, W. (1967). Critical Reading. Philadelphia, PA, USA: Lippincott. Walling, E. (1979). Critical Reading. New York, NY, USA: Scholastic Book Services.  McCart, W. (1984). Critical Reading. Cambridge, MA, USA: Educators Pub. Services.  Boire, C. (1982?). Critical Reading. (Toronto, Ontario, Canada): Ontario Ministry of Education.
  44. An appreciation of all disciplines is well presented in the doctoral dissertation by Rodrigues, A. M.; Massi, M. L. G. (2006). Zeus e a ponderosa indiferença. USP, that includes, in its abstract the note: Constata-se ali que Zeus, ainda que seja em sua essência delegador, utiliza-se de outros estilos de liderança quando a situação requer, a fim de influenciar seus seguidores quanto à missão que lhes cabe no universo. Finalmente, este estudo se detém nos motivos pelos quais os deuses obedecem a Zeus, e por que este obtém o empenho e o compromisso deles, e mostramos que a razão deste comportamento não se deve propriamente ao posto que ele ocupa, mas, à sua maneira de ser, firmeza de propósitos e princípios como liberdade, igualdade, confiança, respeito e reconhecimento, valores compartilhados pelos deuses.
  45. Genesis 1-2. Cp. Azara, P. (2010). La reonstrucción del Edén: mito y arquitectura en Oriente. Madrid, España: GG. Ochsenschlager, E. L. (2004). Iraq’s Marsh Arabs in the Garden of Eden. Philadelphia, PA, USA: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.
  46. Pollock, S. (1999). Ancient Mesopotamia: the Eden that Never was. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  47. Feltham, Colin (2007). What’s wrong with Use: the Anthropathology Thesis. Chichester, England: John Wiley &amp; Sons. 鄭光明著. 鄭光明 (Zheng, G.) 藝術.科學與詮釋 : 藝術家的夢魘及其解決之道 Chino: 台北市立美術館.
  48. Pearson, P. David; Barr, R.; Kamit, M. L.; Mosenthal, P. (1984? 2011). Handbook of Reading Research. New York, NY: Longman.
  49. Scruggs, T. E.; Mastropieri, M. A. (2006). Applications of Research Methodology. Amsterdam, Nederlands: Elsevier JAI.   Hittleman, D. R.; Simon, A. J. (2002). Interpreting Educational Research: An Introduction for Consumers of Research. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Merrill.   Bloor, M.; Wood, F. (2006). Keywords in Qualitative Methods: A Vocabulary of Research Concepts. Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage Publications.
  50. Berkow, P.; Berkow, A. (2000). English Composition: Writing for an Audience. South Burlington, VT, USA: Annerberg/CPB.  Nygaard, L. P. (2008) Writing for Scholars: a Practical Guide to Making Sense and Being Heard. Oslo, Norway: Universitetsforlaget.
  51. Gottschalk, K. K.; Hjortshoj, K. The Elements of Teaching Writing: a Resource for Instructors in All Disciplines. Boston, MA, USA: St. Martins.
  52. Plato, Apology. 10a on the issue of (τὸ ὅσιον: pious or piety), using Stephanus pagination.
  53. Schwartz, M. (1995). Guidelines for Bias-free Writing. Bloomington, IN, USA: Indiana University Press. Huff, A. S. (1999). Writing for a Scholarly Publication. Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage Publications. Schwarz, N. (1996). Cognition and Communication: Judgmental Biases, Research Methods, and the Logic of Conversation. Mahwah, N.J., USA:  L. Erlbaum Associates. Cp. Swaminathan, H. (2003). Small Sample Estimation in Dichotomous Item Response Models: Effect of Priors Based on Judgmental Information on the Accuracy of Item Parameter Estimates. Newton, PA: Law School Admission Council.
  54. Numbers 32:13, a forgery that is not found in Exodus.
  55. It was first used in 108 CE by Ignatius of Antioch, but did not become popular until the middle of the second century because of imperial demands. Prior to the second century, those who led “congregations” of chrestianos and christianos were known as presbyters: the Greek is  πρεσβύτεροι elders, or at times priests; cf. Acts 14:23.
  56. Tabor, James D. (2012). Paul and Jesus: How the Apostle Transformed Christianity. New York, NY, USA: Simon & Schuster.
  57. Ide, A. F. (1991). Zoar & Her Sisters. Oak Cliff, TX: Minuteman Press. p. 179-193.
  58. There is nearly no historical proof for anything in the Book of Acts, especially about Paul. Cf. http://arthuride.wordpress.com/2011/10/29/psychology-of-saulst-paul-a-study-of-linguistics-translation-interpretation-and-biblical-study/ and http://arthuride.wordpress.com/tag/st-paul-epilepsy/.
  59. Ignatius of Antioch, Philippians 3.2.  Eusebius of Caesarea. Historia Ecclesia 2.14.5-6 and 3.1.2, with the Caesarean bishop writing that he is relying on Origen (an early third-century Christian apologist who recorded third- and fourth-hand reminiscences). All other references are conjectural and cannot be taken seriously.
  60. Ignatius of Antioch, Epistle to the Magnesians 6.1, cp. Ignatius of Antioch, Epistle to the Trallesians 3.1, and Ignatius of Antioch. Epistle to the Smyrmans 9.1.  Ignatius was a strong apologist and was more of an advance-man than a preacher or prophet, as I discuss in my article “Ignatius of Antioch”.
  61. Metzger, Bruce M. (1994). A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament [TCGNT
  62. Such as that experienced in 2013 in Tennessee when a totalitarian plutocratic judge belching lunacy from the bench of justice, Kathryn Bradley, arbitrarily changed the name of a seven-month-old baby from Messiah (the word משיח that means “anointed” and was never a title as the judge ruled, claiming that the word was earned only by one man—in contradiction of history and her bible as even David was anointed by Samuel: 1 Samuel 16:6, 12, and Jesus by Mary of Bethany in John 12:1-8. The sentence ascribed to Jesus after the anointing that he would be with his disciples but for a short time and they would have the poor always is actually at best a gloss or redaction, but in fact an outright plagiarism of Deuteronomy 15:11, to Martin that she claimed was a Christian name, cf. http://abcnews.go.com/US/wireStory/tenn-judge-childs-messiah-19931569, citing a Jesus she had never met, and by her pronouncement obviously never read a sentence he is alleged to have spoken.  The ignorance of Kathryn Bradley is unique as the name Jesus is among the most popular names for babies in the world (and was for hundreds of years before the alleged child of Mary was born), and Messiah is fourth in popularity. Cp. http://www.latimes.com/news/nation/nationnow/la-na-nn-baby-messiah-20130811,0,5368290.story, and http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-23665106. The arrogant stupidity and idiocy of this biblical illiterate and self-styled crusader, Kathryn Bradley, disgraces the judicial bench and the concept of blind justice in the USA. She has made her even more infamous ruling odious with her lack of knowledge not only in the area of Bible knowledge and biblical times, but her flatulent fraternization with fantasy. Martin is the name of a wine reserved only for senior gods but not their sons who changed cheap wines into vintages with better taste (a trick that is at least 4000 years old, and was common among the Egyptians), and has no relationship to Jesus or the Christianity.  It is common, even in Tennessee for the name of a city to be protected by various martin gods, such as the god of war:  Mars. Kathryn Bradley conceals her bigotry and racism behind a veiled desire to see a small baby named Fart.
  63. Webster, M.; Sobieszek, B. (1977). Teorias de la autoevaluación: estudió experimental de psicología social. México Ciudad: Editorial Limusa.  Shimshock, S. M. (2012). Open Source Evaluation: Transforming the Evaluator and the Evaluand from Roles to Participatory Actions. Unpublished thesis: Leiden, Nederlands: Proefschrift Tilburg University.
  64. Capossela, Toni-Lee (1993).  The Critical Writing Workshop: Designing Writing Assignments to Foster Critical Thinking. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.  Cp. Jeanneret, Sylvia (2003). Kritik und Schreiben. Bern (Deutschland): Lang. For the social sciences, especially sociology and anthropology, consider: Fleck, C. (2001). “Verblichene Röte auf grauem Hintergrund: ein Vieteljahrhundert ÖZS.” Österreich Austria (May 17) 16:56. For a focused discussion on Old Prussian orthography and a critical examination of all the theories dealing with Old Prussian accentology and accentography published to 2001, read: Rosinas, A.; Pakerys, A.; Stundžia, Bonifacas; Blažienė, Grasilda; Villanueva Svensson, Miguel; Girdenis, Aleksas; Andronov, A.; Vilnius University; Rinkevičius, Vytautas (2009). Das altpreußische Akzentsystem. Lithuanian Academic Libraries Network (LABT) Vilnius University.
  65. Nolan, C.; Spencer, L. (2012). Writing to Persuade. New York, NY, USA: Rosen Central.
  66. Dickens, Charles (183?). Great Expectations. London, UK: Chapman and Hall.
  67. Brontë, A.; Brontë, C. (18??). The Tenant of Wildfell Hall. London, UK: Thomas Nelson & Sons.
  68. Hockett, H. C. (1955). The Critical Method in Historical Research and Writing. New York, NY, USA: Macmillan.
  69. Kingdon, R. M. (2012). Reforming Geneva: Discipline, Faith and Anger in Calvin’s Geneva. Genève, Switzerland: Librairie Broz.  Cameron, J. K; Flett, I. E. F. (1981). The Conflict of the Reformation and Democracy in the Geneva of Scotland, 1443-1610: an Introduction to edited Texts of Documents Relating to the Burgh of Dundee. University of St. Andrews Unpublished dissertation: St. Andrews, Scotland. Gamble, R. C. (1992). Calvin’s Thought on Economic and Social Issues and the Relationship of Church and State. New York, NY: Garland, Press.
  70. MacDonald, A. R. (1998). The Jacobean Kirk, 1567-1625: Sovereignty, Polity, and Liturgy. Aldershot, UK; Ashgate.
  71. Mantell, J.; Correale, J.; Adams-Skinner, J. A.; Stein, Z. (2011). “Conflicts between conservative Christian institutions and secular groups in sub-Saharan Africa: Ideological discourses on sexualities, reproduction, and HIV/AIDS”.  Global Public Health. Vol. 6, no. Supplement 2: 192-209.
  72. Werbner, Richard P. (2011). Holy Hustlers, Schism, and Prophecy: Apostolic Reformation in Botswana. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press.
  73. Smallwood, C.; Holland, S. (2012). Women Writing on Family: Tips on Writing, Teaching and Publishing. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Key Publishing House.
  74. Consider the classic by Forster, R. P. (1818). A Collection of the Most Celebrated Voyages &amp; Travels, from the Discovery of America to the Present Time: arranged in Systematic Order, Geographical and Chronological, the Whole Exhibiting a Faithful and Lively Delineation of the World. (Newcastle upon Tyne, England?, s.n.)
  75. McGuinness, D. E.; Spencer, L. (2012). Writing to Describe. New York, NY, USA: Rosen Central.
  76. Theodoret, Historia Ecclesia, Book I, chaps. 6-13.  Socrates, Historia Ecclesia. Book I, chap. 8.   Sozomen, Historia Ecclesia, Book I, chap. 21.  Athanasius, De decretis synodis, and his Epistola Adversus episcopos Africae, 5 ff.  Epiphanius, Haereses 69 on Arius.  Philostorgius, Historia Ecclesia. Book I.7.7a.
  77.   J.-P. Migne, Patrologia Graeco-Latina, vol. 85, cols. 1185-1360 (in Greek and Latin).
  78. The Vatican, Bibl. Vat., Vat. gr. 1209; no. <b>B</b> or <b>03</b> Gregory-Aland, δ 1 von Soden.
  79. London, Brit. Libr., Additional Manuscripts 43725; Gregory-Aland nº  (Aleph) or 01, Soden δ 2.
  80. Beutel, R.; Spencer, L. (2012). Writing about the Issues. New York, NY, USA: Rosen.
  81. A personal favorite on succinct writing is by Bollan, W. (1766). A Succinct View of the Origin of Our Colonies: with their Civil State, founded by Queen Elizabeth, corroborated by succeeding princes, and confirmed by acts of Parliament: whereby the nature of the empire established in America, and the errors of various hypotheses formed thereupon, may be clearly understood: with the observations of the commercial, beneficial and perpetual union of the colonies with this kingdom: being an extract from an essay lately published, entitled The freedom of speech and writing, &c. London, England (s.n.).
  82. Clark, J. L.; Murray, K. E. (2012). Scholarly Writing: Ideas, Examples, and Execution. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.
  83. Butler, S. (1879). Evolution, Old and New: or, the Theories of Buffon, Dr. Erasmus Darwin, and Lamarck, as compared with that of Mr. Charles Darwin. London, UK: Hardwicke and Bogue. McKinney, H. L. (1971). Lamarck to Darwin: Contributions to Evolutionary Biology 1809-1859. Lawrence, KS, USA: Coronado Press.
  84. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-21747567.
  85. Mitchell, T.C. (1988). Biblical Archaeology: Documents from the British Museum. London, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 83.
  86. http://thenewcivilrightsmovement.com/opinion-nom-shill-mark-regnerus-long-history-of-using-religion-to-attack-gays/discrimination/2012/06/14/41465/. Regnerus went from Calvinist extremism to Roman Catholic fundamentalism: http://icl.nd.edu/initiatives-projects/catholic-social-and-pastoral-research-initiative/researcher-highlights/changing little in the area of blind faith but placing religion and its stagnant indoctrination above true scholarship in exchange for ephemeral evanescent fugacious fame that sullied the reputation not only of the Department of Sociology but of The University of Texas at Austin in disrepute.
  87. Egri, L. (1960). The Art of Dramatic Writing: Its Basis in the Creative Interpretation of Human Motives.  New York, NY, USA: Simon and Schuster; cf.  Noble, W. (2000). Writing Dramatic Nonfiction. Forest Dale, VT: P.S. Eriksson.
  88. This stems from the Old Anglo-French disprover where things that could not be proven were given a sacrosanct shield against questioning. Cp. Ramírez, S. E. (1996). The World Upside Down: Cross-cultural contact and conflict in sixteenth-century Peru (sic: Perú). Stanford, CA, USA: Stanford University Press. Cf. Leone, B. (2002). Creationism vs. Evolution. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press.
  89. Cisneros Estupiñán, M.; Olave Arias, G. (2012). Redacción y publicación de artículos científicos: enfoque discursivo. Bogotá, Columbia. Cf. Alred, G. J.; Brusaw, C. T.; Oliu, W. E. (2012). Handbook of Technical Writing. Boston, MA, USA: Bedford/St. Martins.  Cp. Icart Isern, M. T.; Pulpóm Segura. A. M. (2012). Cómo elaborar y presentar un proyecto de investigación, una tesina y una tesis. Barcelona, España: Universidad de Barcelona.
  90. Sarcerius, Erasmus; Egenolff, Christian, et al. (1538). Postilla in Euangelia Dominicalia, In qua facile dispoitione, omnium Euanaliorum textus ad locos communes dispositus est… Francoforti (Deutschland): Chr. Egen. (Apud Christianum Egenolphum) gives the spiritual use of the censor but neglects its intercessory use in other supplications. Its use was explored from its initial introduction in Philippians 4:6, by Martin Luher in his recitation of the Decalogue (Rezitation von Dekalog): Martin Luther weist ausgehend von Phil 4,6 durch seine Allegorie vom Rauchfass auf den Primat des Dankgebets gegenüber dem Bittgebet hin. Bewährte Gebete wie Vaterunser oder Psalmen entsprechen demnach dem »güldenen Gefäß«, as printed in the article issued by Bernard Mutshcler Affiliation: Wissenschaftlich-Theologisches Seminar Kisselgasses 1, 69117, Heidelberg (2007/06/19), “Ein Reden des Herzens mit Gott. Martin Luther uber das Gebet,“ in Neue Zeitschrift für Systematische und Religionsphilosophie. Vol. 49 No. 1: 24-41.
  91. Mahnkopf, Claus-Steffen (2006). Critical Composition Today. Hofheim, Deutschland: Wolke Verlag.  Cf. Goleman, J.; Freire, P. (1995). Working Theory: Critical Composition Studies for Students and Teachers. Westport, CT: Bergin / Garvey.  For antecedents, read: Διονύσιος Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἁλικαρνᾱσσεύς (Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 60 BCE – 7 BCE). The Critical Essays. Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard University Press, 1974-1985 Loeb Classical Library No. 465.  Dionysius greatest contribution to scholarship is his Arrangement of Words (Περὶ συνθέσεως ὀνομάτων, Perì synthéseōs onomátōn), treating of the combination of words according to the different styles of oratory.
  92. While this linguistic ignorance is common everywhere with the decline of philological studies, it is, indeed, sad to find its nadir in the state-sanctioned and supported  Russian Orthodox religion that its extortion extolls the rights of a select few over the many.  The Russian Orthodox clergy has the highest rate of criminals and pedophiles over any other organized religion with the exception of the Roman Catholic Church in the USA where predatory Jesuits attack small and very young girls in Indian tribal lands in Alaska and throughout the panhandle. The Russian Orthodox Church says nothing about this growing menace that now is coming to light not only in major metropolitan centers that include Saint Petersburg and Moscow, but in small villages where a predatory priest is more welcomed than a celibate homosexual  the Russian Orthodox clergy openly rejects the celibate homosexual but embraces the pedophile, as did the Grand Inquisitors throughout history, Ephesians 4:31-32: Всякое раздражение и ярость, и гнев, и крик, и злоречие со всякою злобою да будут удалены от вас; но будьте друг ко другу добры, сострадательны, прощайте друг друга, как и Бог во Христе простил вас.[94. Cp. πᾶσα πικρία καὶ θυμὸς καὶ ὀργὴ καὶ κραυγὴ καὶ βλασφημία ἀρθήτω ἀφ’ ὑμῶν σὺν πάσῃ κακίᾳ γίνεσθε δὲ εἰς ἀλλήλους χρηστοί εὔσπλαγχνοι χαριζόμενοι ἑαυτοῖς καθὼς καὶ ὁ θεὸς ἐν Χριστῷ ἐχαρίσατο ὑμῖν cp. omnis amaritudo et ira et indignatio et clamor et blasphemia tollatur a vobis cum omni malitia estote autem invicem benigni misericordes donantes invicem sicut et Deus in Christo donavit nobis.  Cf. http://en-maktoob.news.yahoo.com/russian-orthodox-church-rallies-faithful-criticism-153830743.html.
  93. Davidson, John (1893). Sentences and Paragraphs. London, UK: Lawrence & Bullen. Cf. Maggs, M. (1984). Writing Sentences and Paragraphs. Lincolnwood, IL: Voluntad Publishers.  Cp. Reid, J. M.; Lindstrom, M. (1985). The Process of Paragraph Writing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  94. Sullivan, K. E. (1976). Paragraph Practice: Text and Exercises in the Topic Sentence, the Paragraph, and the Short Composition. New York, NY: Macmillan.
  95. Davison, A. (1982). A Systematic Definition of Sentence Topic. Champaign, IL: , USA: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Center for the Study of Reading, Bolt, Beranek, and Newman, Inc.; National Institute of Education (U.S.). Cp. Lambrecht, Knud (1994). Information Structure and Sentence Form: Topic, Focus, and the Mental Representations of Discourse Referents. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  96. Eggers, P. (2008). Steps for Writers: Composing Paragraphs. Harlow, UK: Longman.
  97. Slise, T. S. (1974). Paragraphs that Work. (s.l.): Thomas S. Klise.
  98. Lenker, U. (2010). Argument and Rhetoric: Adverbial Connectors in the History of English. Berlin, Deutschland: De Gruyter Mouton.
  99. Bates, L. (1993). Transitions: An Interactive Reading, Writing, and Grammar Text. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.
  100. Williams, J. M. (1990). Style: Toward Clarity and Grace. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  101. Ide, A. F. (1998). Punctuation Handbook. Dallas, TX: Monument Press.
  102. Gore, Al (2006). An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It. New York, NY: Rodale Press. Cf. Gore, Al; O’Connor, J. (2007). An Inconvenient Truth: The Crisis of Global Warming. London, UK: Bloomsbury. Paramount studios made a movie about it in 2006.
  103. Pollack, H. N. (2009). A World without Ice. New York, NY: Avery.  Cf. McKibben, B. (2012).  The Global Warming Reader: A Century of Writing about Climate Change. New York, NY, USA: Penguin Books.
  104. Heller, Joseph (1961). Catch-22. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. Ref. chap. 5.

One comment to Intriguing Prose in Academic Research: Bringing Life to Scientific Papers

  • N E Longoria  says:

    WOW! Extraordinary! This should be required reading for anyone writing a thesis or dissertation. It is well-written but in a manner that does not require a PhD in literature to comprehend.

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