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Investigation: First tool toward a definition of fact

Contents

I. Introduction

II. Abstract

III. Introduction

IV. Asking Questions, Initiating Investigation

V. The Investigative Process

VI. Original Sources not Understood or Ignored

VII. Established Opinions vs. Truth

VIII. Barriers and Authorities

IX. Interrogation vs. Interview

X. Interview Preparation

XI. Communication Skills

XII. Ethics and Investigation

XIII. Group Think

XIV.  Bibliography

XV. End Notes

Abstract

Investigation is commonly defined in the current era as being associated with criminal (White collar1  and Blue collar2 behavior, actions, and various consequences ranging from theft to murder-for-hire and assassination, and more,3 while the practitioners of this sleuthfoot/gumshoed/shamus4 operation do use basic principles of investigation.  Investigation is not limited to criminal activity or crime, save in the broadest of generalizations and efforts.5

Introduction

While most academic investigators are private individuals, there are also group investigation teams in all areas of commercial, governmental, and private areas who seek out whether or not there is fraud, waste, abuse, and other mischaracterizations of reality.6  The military of the USA defined these characteristics by the acronym FLAWS.

It is especially imperative, in academe in all fields, that scholars (students and researchers), faculty, directors, and administrators be well-versed in the investigative process.7 Scholars understand the necessity of investigating every facet before presenting their findings to a peer review committee, or submitting it for publication. Sloppy scholarship is no longer acceptable, although it is slipping additamentally into MOOCs (Massive Open Online Course) that seldom demand detailed critical thinking.

Art of Processing Data

Investigation is a serious study or act of processing data to see if actual research is warranted.8  Investigation is the ascertaining if facts exist and warrant further research to reach a logical conclusion of the validity of anything that is questionable—and everything is questionable as there is no single answer, no universal answer, no solitary person who is infallible in anything at any time, as everything changes but change itself.  To answer a question asked at one time does not guarantee that the same question will be reviewed, interrogated, investigated, or dissected at another time, as true investigation is a detailed or careful study and examination of what is known at the time that encourages research to see if there is a more coherent, cogent, cohesive and collective result to the question at hand.  This is determined by research.

The authentic, trained, expert investigator is very much like Brother William of Baskerville (Umberto Eco’s Franciscan monk in the classic The Name of the Rose) who is able to determine that there needs to be an investigation at the northern Italian monastery where a young Brother “was gathered unto god” when he spied a new grave while looking out of the window of his cell onto the landscape below), will realize note any unusual circumstance, situation, happening, or occurence that is not in keeping with the time, clime, or milieu. It was this grave that made the man the Holy Inquisition most resented take courage and question the abbot about the passing of the “infamous” monk that led him to defining an autograph (footstep) in the snow, consulting with other worker-monks as well as attempting to interview the Librarian of the famed abbey’s collection of books, and so forth.  No stone could be left unturned, no person was unapproachable including the Venerable Jorge, and no ritual, rite, or belief could be left unchallenged until knowledge, the supreme virtue in the mind of William of Baskerville (unlike the masochism of the Venerable Jorge who screached that suffering was more important, and Baskerville’s fellow Franciscans begged the monk and his handsome young protégé Adso–who everyone feared was too beautiful and would tempt the Devil to seek sexual intercourse with the youth since his eyes were seen to be “like those of a girl”), until the Italian Professor’s reasoning-seasoned Brother Baskerville knew who not only was the murderer but why serial murders took place in the abbey. 

The researcher, to be accurate, adequate to the task, and answerable to any critique by peers must set forth not only the question but all positive and negative answers to that question before the information can be synthesized and analyzed into a final format to lend credibility not only to the question and answer, but the records of posterity through the art of critical thinking.  Investigation demands exploration, examination, inquiry, and scrutiny of all things while ignoring demigods and demagogues who would have investigation stay clear of sacrosanctified codices, claiming that investigations have not be proven or adequately questioned.

Asking Questions, Initiating Investigation

Society cannot move forward nor can education be elaborated up, enhanced, examined, or delivered adequately until questions are asked, answers posited, posed, punctuated and penetrating into the wall separating the mortal from the world of enlightenment through a systematic, minute, and thorough effort that extends itself into attempting to learn theories and facts about something that is complex or hidden, denied, prostrated, penalized, or buried.  This requires an examination that is not only an orderly, succinct and definitive process for the moment in an attempt to obtain information about or to make a test of and for the validity of any pronouncement, preachifications, publication or posting relative to the subject.9

The Investigative Process

Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin

The investigative process, known as investigation (from the Latin investigationem (nominative: investigation) meaning “a searching into” records, recounts, popular movements and expressions, and material used to create or pass laws and legislation, create educational environments, and so forth, requires a structured, solid, sentry inquiry into that which is unknown or hidden from view. This was the case with Charles Darwin’s voyage on HMS Beagle to determine the accuracy, authenticity, actuality of the initial theories on evolution especially by the French naturalist, biologist and academic Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829).10  Darwin did not set out to disprove Lamarck, but to verify the French naturalist–but could not as he was seeking facts, not fantasies.

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck by Charles Thévenin (c. 1802)

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck by Charles Thévenin (c. 1802)

Lamarck has come under heavy criticism since the publication of Darwin’s work.  Lamarck has been criticized not only for his claims that giraffes increased their neck size in quest of food (which is only an illustration, not a thesis, in his works), and that the French naturalist argued for heredity and not evolution.11   It has now been repeatedly proven that heredity is not a part of evolution.  Heredity only addresses the issue of the transmission of genetic characters from parents to offspring and it depends upon the segregation and recombination of genes during meiosis and fertilization that results in the genesis of a new individual similar to others of its kind while exhibiting certain various resulting from the particular mix of genes and their interactions with the environment. Evolution, on the other hand is any process of formation or growth leading to development of the species by change in the gene pool by means of mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift. Evolution is from the Latin ēvolūtiō  meaning “unrolling” or “opening” to that which is new.

Original Sources not Understood or Ignored

Lamarck did not originate the idea of organic evolution. Organic evolution was a concept that originated with pre-Socratic philosophers, as I detail below.

Charles Darwin was the first person to formulate an accurate scientific argument for the theory of evolution by means of natural selection.  Lamarck was speculative, but did primary work inspiring Darwin to complete the study that even Darwin found as faulty, despite the fact that Lamarck coined not only the term biology (his three-volume work Flore française, that won for him membership in the elite French Academy of Sciences in 1779), but also botany-zoology (he was appointed professor of zoology when the Muséum national ‘Histoire naturelle was founded in 1793).

In 1801 Lamarck coined the term invertebrates with the publication of his work Système des animaux sans vertèbres12  Lamarck wrote that living organisms drove them towards ever greater levels of complexity in their evolutionary process: The rapid motion of fluids will etch canals between delicate tissues. Soon their flow will begin to vary, leading to the emergence of distinct organs. The fluids themselves, now more elaborate, will become more complex, engendering a greater variety of secretions and substances composing the organs.13 chemistry, geology, and meteorology.

Thomas Henry Huxley

Thomas Henry Huxley

While most of the nineteenth century sceptics and religious afficionados considered Darwin’s work to be blasphemous (after a serious debate in 1858)14 since it excludes the role of mortals (for many only man to the exclusion of women who were viewed popularly as being subordinate to man) as playing a central role in the universe.  The protestation of clerics and religious scholars was at a stage of extreme agitation that Thomas Henry Huxley used the work of Darwin when he applied Darwin’s ideas to humans, using paleontology and comparative anatomy to provide strong evidence that humans and apes shared a common ancestry a study that is nowhere to be found in the Darwin theory.15

Anaximander (610-546 BCE)

Anaximander (610-546 BCE)

The theory of evolution is not new to the eighteenth or the nineteenth century, contrary to what the disciples of Lemarck or Darwin claimed, although Darwin never claimed his theory new or of recent vintage.  Darwin knew that to claim that shows insufficient research, a minimal appreciation of the art and science of scientific inquiry and absence of adequate translation and interpretation skills, but worse, the denudation of the conduct of inquiry.  The argument that an existing animal (hot-blooded mammals including people) existed only with the advent of man can be removed easily as it can be found in the works of pre-Socratic Greeks philosophers.16 Among the earliest investigators searching for an answer as to the beginning of mamals (basically investigating the origins of man) came with Anaximander (Ἀναξίμανδρος Anaximandros; c. 610 – c. 546 BCE of Miletus—in modern Turkey).  Anaximander was the author of many firsts.  He was the first philosopher to write down his investigation and studies17 and was the earliest to use the word apeíron (ἄπειρον) that he argued was infinite or limitless for cosmology/the universe that is eternal and ageless18 with no reference to a god.

Thomas Aquinas

Thomas Aquinas

The idea of there being a god of any divine nature was not a ripe idea as defined in the twenty-first century. Nowhere did it exist in the writings of any Pre-Socratic philosopher or writer–and it is not truly found in the writings of Socrates or his students but is incorporated in contemporary records as the result of mistranslations of apologists for the church of the Emperor Constantine I.  This falsification of the ancient texts was deliberately misconstrued in the fourth century, and again by the Italian Dominican priest Thomas Aquinas (28 January 1225-7 March 1274) to designate the original principle and develop a methodical way to unite faith and reason, and from this distortion came his two major works: Summa Theologica and Summa contra Gentiles.  He argued that there were just wars, differing from Augustine and his predecessors, and gave foundation for the Inquisition.

Empédocles of Agrigento

Empédocles of Agrigento

Anaximander’s thought was emphasized by Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς; Empedoklēs; c. 490–430 BC) a citizen of Agrigentum,19 a Greek city in Sicily.  Empedocles was the originator of the cosmogenic theory of the four Classical elements, although he never used the term στοιχεῖον (stoicheion: elements).  The term “elements” was first used by Plato,20.  In quest for the ultimate answer, and influenced by Pythagorean thought, Empedocles supported the doctrine of reincarnation to evolve into a different and more refined being.21 These two Greek philosophers were the foundation for the arguments of Aristotle, leading a few to see the disciple of Plato as an evolutionist.22  Some have claimed that the Greek philosopher, Empedocles, was the source for Darwin’s theory of evolution, but this cannot be confirmed with extant documents 23 Empedocles was given a host of acclamations in his day and centuries afterwards,24 and has been considered even by Aristotle as a forerunner of rhetorical eloquence and arguments on the changes in nature.25

Galileo and the Roman Inquisition

Galileo and the Roman Inquisition

Investigation suffered its worse set-back with the arrest, torture, and trial of  Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642.  Galileo was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution, and has been called the “father of modern observational astronomy,” “father of modern physics”, “father of science” and the “Father of Modern Science”, but was a victim of the Holy Inquisition.  Galileo argued passionately for the right of people to investigate all things and be subject to no authority that would hinder the quest for truth.

Galileo on Intellect over Fantasy

Galileo on Intellect over Fantasy

Galileo was forced to recant his defense of the Polish monk’s theory on geocentricism: and stood sentry for Nicholas Copernicus works on the rotation of the planets around the sun. For this reason Galileo was investigated by the Roman Inquisition in 1615 that concluded that geocentricism was only a possibility but not a fact as it was not recorded in the Bible.  The Inquisition found Galileo “vehemently suspect of heresy” and forced him to recant (he later recanted the recantation) and sentenced Galileo to spend the rest of his life under house arrest.  During the time, Galileo defended his investigation and research in his book Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems that the Jesuits argued attacked Pope Urban VIII, thus alienating his former supporters.  Obviously, the Jesuits did not read the work carefully: Pope Urban VIII had personally asked Galileo to give arguments for and against heliocentrism in the book following the principles of good research: to present all arguments for and against the topic investigated; but Urban VIII made on request that Galileo could not agree to and did not, as the Pope asked Galileo to be careful not to advocate heliocentrism, an argument that Galileo made while including Urban VIII’s own tacit support for geocentricism.

Established Opinions vs. Truth

Galileo added to his woes with his poignant rejection of the fantasy of Ptolemy and his heliocentric belief that the world stood still in the center of the universe while the sun rolled or traveled around the water planet known as Earth. Galileo was damned for using a telescope to confirm the phases of Venus, and discovered the four largest satellites Jupiter that were named the Galilean moons in his honor.  His books were placed on the Index of Forbidden Books, and none were allowed to be published until 1632, ten years before Galileo’s death.

John Ray (1627 - 1705)

John Ray (1627 – 1705)

In the 17th century, most scientists rejected the works of Aristotle, and those who taught before him, defining “the laws of nature” in accordance with “revealed truth” while being careful to comment that life was the creation of a god so as not to offend the church.26  Their concern with a defense of the Bible made believers happy, but science suffered.  Today there are still creationists claiming that the world is no older than 6000 years, that a man put all the animals of the earth on a ship made of gopherwood (it does not exist nor did it exist) and those that did not board drowned, with the text indicating that all fish drowned including all the whales, all fish, other forms of sea life, and birds who flew in the are–including the two birds who summoned the captain (Noah) to disembark from the ship and walk on dry ground–unique inasmuch as the bird came from a dry ground habitat.

Leondaro da Vinci: architect, artist, inventor, writer, etc.

Leondaro da Vinci: architect, artist, inventor, writer, etc.

Many of these “modern” scientists rejected the progressive, avant-garde, works of Leonardo da Vinci.  Da Vince created numerous inventions and established theories that remain unchallenged for centuries because he was deemed “not religious enough”.  His scientific and anatomical studies, far more advanced than anything in the schools of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were rejected in many cases by those who argued that only Christians could be considered scientists even though da Vince wrote volumes on anatomy,27 architecture, astronomy, geography, geology, and paleontology.28

Barriers and Authorities

CIA interrogation techniques

CIA interrogation techniques

Investigation takes various formats, recognizes no barriers and is not indebted to any power or potentate.  Investigation occurs by interviewing people who knew about any subject or are considered scholars in their field or fields.29  Investigation does not include interrogation and the interrogator, in nearly every case is similar to unholy Inquisitor, applying force to take from the individual being investigated, the statement or comments that the investigator wants without objectivity or rational prowess. The purpose of interrogation is to extract information fraudulently and unethically, and has been a curse of governments since the beginning of time.30

Interrogation vs. Interview 

CIA interrogation techniques

CIA interrogation techniques

Interrogation is organized by power structures intimidated by the people in a way to leverage loyalty that does not exist. Interrogation techniques include deception, torture, and suggestibility and have no place in true investigation. In most of the world there is no law or regulation prohibiting the interrogator from lying about the purpose, strength of a case, or from using misleading statements or implying that the subject interviewed is implicated in any way, or that documentation exists that is a fantasy.  It is equal to people claiming to have various levels of education with the most widely abused being the false claim of higher education (especially the earned doctorate, common especially in South America) or that a thesis is legitimate when in reality it goes beyond plagiarism to the theft of intellectual property.  While Pope Nicholas I banned the practice of torture in 866, it was still used in interrogation with Jesus being crucified on the cross not appearing until the seventh century with the pontificate of Agathon (680 CE),31 rising the thirteenth century and exploding with the introduction of the unholy Inquisition that was matched for vileness and perfidy with the Reformers in the sixteenth century. Mussolini’s Fascist Italy, Hitler’s Third Reich, and Lenin’s and Stalin’s Soviet Union once again resumed the practice and it has taken over the USA with the CIA and US military command in the forefront under George W. Bush and Barrack Obama: from Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq32 to Guantanamo prison in Cuba, with the CIA teaching dictatorships from Pinochet (Chile), Jorge Rafael Videla and Jorge Mario Bergoglio Berergilio (Argentina) and Fujimori and Montesinos assassins (Peru) in South America techniques of torture and genocide 33 adopting such techniques as water-boarding, sleep deprivation and other mind-altering techniques practiced by Mussolini’s Fascist Italy, Hitler’s Third Reich (Gestapo), and Lenin’s and Stalin’s Soviet Union (KGB), flooding Southeast Asia with American trained terrorists, covertly supporting numerous nefarious regimes from Saudi Arabia to Iran.34 

CIA interrorogation in a prison in Amman at Jordanian Deserts

CIA interrorogation in a prison in Amman at Jordanian Deserts

Syria and many Middle Eastern nations sold torture chambers to the USA CIA, where barbaric acts went undetected by the outside world but filmed and detailed by the most draconic and diabolical USA and UK military miscreants ever to waste air breathing, while the CIA briefed the George W. Bush Administration and no less than 68 lawmakers on “enhanced interroration technices” that were accepted by Dick Cheney and Condi Rice.35. The UK government, too, has been quick to institute torture programs, primarily at Chicksands, following the initial instructions of Magaret Thatcher, a leading opponent of the average citizen and seeing no problem with torture. Canada uses psychological torture to extract confession.36 Germany has never given up torture and collaborated with the USA NSA spy network to eavesdrop on private conversation, read e-mails without authorized warrants, and under Angela Merkel, a one-time follower of Third Reich torture training, of Germany that allowed her government to become a part of NSA spying on German citizens, making Germany a bigger spied on nation than it had been under Hitler.37

Interview Preparation

Investigation has its own interview process, beginning with knowing whom the person being interviewed is, the individual’s connection to the topic under investigation, what the individual might know from the beginning of the process being investigated, how comfortable the person being interviewed is with talking about the situation, how reliable of a witness the person is, and more.38  Characteristically, the investigator will be compassionate, compatible and coherent in presenting questions that are relevant, reliable, researchable, and formatted in an inoffensive manner.  Questions will deal specifically, specially, and precisely, particularly, and patiently with the issue at hand without transitional arguments or linking arguments.

The person being interviewed will be addressed in a manner comfortable to the person supplying information that is directed inoffensively.  While precise dates and data are important, if the subject is being interviewed about a past occurrence, it must be done knowing the memories can weaken and be affected adversely by external circumstances.  If the past is calculated at more than a generation, it is imperative to know that concepts, conceptions, and knowledge can be altered, distorted or disengaged requiring additional interviews or conversations without other people.  It is never acceptable to consider any information without verification, justification and authentication that lacks validity checks and counterbalances.

Communication Skills

Body Language

Body Language

Communicating requires audio control, the ability to understand the language or jargon of the individual being interviewed, and the compassion to be patient and inoffensive.  Moreover, when questions are misunderstood because of a difference in education or training background, the communicator must use words understood by the person being interviewed or explain words that are poorly understood or misunderstood concretely, cogently, correctly, and carefully.  No interview should be rushed.39

Written and oral statements must be scrutinized for any bias (that must then be redacted or explained), any covert effort to obfuscate the truth, and all attempts to pass judgment without foundation.  When comments are made about a recorded incident, the records must be researched, verified, and incorporated objectively by presenting all arguments for or against the subject or subject matter.40

Reluctant and deceptive witnesses are commonly encountered in any interview for a variety of reasons.  One, the witness may want to turn things to the witness’ advantage, or to the disadvantage of the subject or subject matter to fulfill a private goal or to cast aspersions on either the subject or subject matter to twist the ultimate outcome in favor of the person being interviewed.  Clues to deception are easily determined if words are twisted away from the questions of the interviewer, or contain double entendres. Other methods to determine if the subject is speaking factual is by understanding body language and the various meaning of different facial and body expressions from folded arms to clench fists and teeth, to excessive movement of the body, and so forth.  All these facets must be recorded and entered into the investigative report.

Ethics and Investigation

It is ethically wrong to have more than one investigator on a project.  The reason this is wrong is it is short-sighted about the reality that any group that is expected or told to come to a common conclusion will within the group lead to a power struggle as to whom shall chair the investigation, and worse, lead to “group think” where peer pressure to conform will overweigh individual ingenuity and creativeness and weed out any true investigative results.41  Individual thoughts, determinations, and results will be ceded to the group and the quality of research will diminish in quest of group consciousness—the primary reason I refuse to let students work on any project much less alone prepare a group thesis.  Group think is Orwellian (1984)42 in nature—with much the same result as Hans Christian Anderson portrayed in his class The Emperor’s New Clothes.43 Group think suppresses dissenting views and frequently leads to an overly simplified view of problems and solutions.44 In Group think, one writes the bulk of any research project and the rest of the group accepts the work as their own.  This bastardization of intellect and prostitution of actual research by a small number of any groups happens especially in thesis written by groups tasked with writing a group thesis, with those in the group surrendering any responsibility for original thought and frequently void of any knowledge of the thesis topic.45

Group Think

Group think suppresses dissenting views and can lead to an over simplified view of problems and solutions.  Group think leads to these problems:

Group attitude of invulnerability46 and resulting bullying of those outside of the group.47  The group feels that it is “bulletproof.” With the misconception of group invulnerability, the group takes unnecessary risks and is overly confident leading the group to producing sloppy scholarship, lack of details and statistics in the presentation, and void of any adherence to any particular style. Frequently, one of the group assumes or presumes the leadership role and dictates to other researchers within the group what will or will not be considered, what authorities are to be looked at and incorporated, or which authorities are to be ignored and discarded; this is especially true among students who write group thesis who favor or dislike an instructor, desire or reject a style of writing or presentation, or put forward any effort to master subject matter or confront opposition to their work or lack of work.

Group rationalism is among the most dangerous, for when there is consensus forced into a group, there is a painful discrediting of evidence that is contrary to the group beliefs.48  This was the role of the bishops at Nicaea in 325 CE, when the Emperor Constantine had all tracts, scrolls, books, and pamphlets burned that rejected his interpretation of what he wanted his official state law-court or assembly (ἐκκλησία ekklēsia) to rule on matters of faith in what he defined as his “catholic [universal] church.49  Originally, the word was קהל or Qahal, meaning a theocratic organizational structure with the ancient Roman ruler, the Pontifex Maximus, being the supreme authority. Qahal is in a close etymological relation of the word qoheleth.  It is the same result in all group activities: one person rules and the rest follow blindly and if the ruler passes away from the group, the group disintegrates.

Group peer pressure inhibits the will to dissent,50 as was the rule with the early Church, the medieval Church especially the Inquisition,51 the rise of Protestant groups that exchange the pope for a pastor, preacher, or king as with the state church of England, the patrimony of Martin Luther and his anti-Semitic rants,52 the canton of Geneva, and all others up to the days of Martin Luther’s spiritual heir: Adolf Hitler who followed Luther’s 1543 treatise Von den Juden und Ihren Lügen (On the Jews and Their Lies) and Vom Schem Hamphoras und vom Geschlecht Christi (Of the Unknowable Name and the Generations of Christ) an injunction to kill all Jews, deprive all Jews of their wealth, and demean all Jews that the people of the Third Reich agreed to tacitly and most praised openly.53 Members of the group are psychologically browbeaten or tortured into conformity of thought.

Group belief of moral superiority that became the backbone to the Khristian Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Aryan Nation, the elitism of Alberto Fujimori’s sterilization of mountain people under the pretext of giving medical attention to men and women in Perú, and defining what is right or wrong, as with Maggie Gallagher of NOM, or Congressional Representative Stephen King (Republican-Iowa), Governor Scott Walker (Republican-Wisconsin) and Governor Rick Perry (Republican-Texas) who define who can vote, what women can do with their bodies, where people are to live, who lives or dies, and is the personification of Lèse-majesté as typified universally.54 and is the foundation for undisguised racism in Florida and other states that opined the “Stand Your Ground” laws that allows white people to kill people of color who “appear” as a threat to their safety55 as white people have more assumed capital to spend than do people of color.56

Stereotyping of outsiders in negative terms—such as “Oh, he is just a dumb gay guy”; or, “Those medi-practors are so insecure in their ability to adjust.”57 Stereotyping increases the loss of self-esteem, makes the subject respondent unwilling to reply truthfully or will deliberately set out to sabotage the research.  Stereotyping is calloused, crass, and creates irreparable breaches between the researcher and the person interviewed.

Group self-censorship.58 Peer pressure and stereotyping create a spirit of self-censorship. Team members censor their own words and thoughts, frequently leaving out valuable information that they find personally offensive or fear the information will offend someone else, some religion, political party or partisan, an elected official or a nationality.  It is worse when the information is ignored, deleted, self-censored, or rewritten as the problem cannot be addressed nor an answer or cure found, as with the rabid cases of anti-Semitism or anti-Palestinian.  If the information is offensive such as decrying the debauchery and debacles dangerous to the freedom of people in Russia because of former KBG agent and Russia’s senior Patriarch Kirill’s illegal sale of cigarettes to Moscow youth to enrich himself $2.5 to $4 billion59 to buy a chalet in Switzerland, a penthouse in St. Petersburg, a fleet of cars and expensive watches to use when not dining on plates of gold before preaching on the poverty of Jesus,60 the self-censor or self-censoring group needs to rethink its priorities and recall the adage that “the truth shall make people free.”61

Group complacency is fed by the group’s culture of self censorship and peer pressure. The more complacent a group is in any regard, the less valuable become the writings, pretended insights and publications.62  If one worried about a sperm breaking into an ova (egg) as being “killed” rather than understanding full embryology, those who read unprepared, ill-informed propaganda are the poorer than if they had not read the treatise.  Investigation is to find what is true, not what is proper, allegedly holy, or that meets with the diktat of a principle, potentate, or power.63 The appearance of unanimous decisions: Since no one voices a dissenting opinion (because of peer pressure, self-censorship and stereotyping of dissenters), the group feels that it always has a unanimous consensus.  A unanimous consensus occur only with proclamation and acclamation, not with silence, as silence in most cases, as psychological studies show are the result of intimidation,64 self-loathing65 or lowered self-esteem66 crippled by peer pressure.67  The same is true with a “voice vote” for the louder one speaks or yells does not mean that the investigation before the vote was complete, true, or representative of what there was to know and investigate.68

 

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Yzerbyt, Vincent; Judd, Charles M.; Corneille, Olivier (2004). The Psychology of Group Perception: Perceived Variability, Entitativity, and Essentialism. New York, NY, USA and Hove (England): Psychology Press.

Internet links cited in this study (retrieved 25 August 2013):

CIA USA assassins: http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/jurisprudence/2009/03/ice_water_and_sweatboxes.html

CIA USA genocide: http://www.channel4.com/news/articles/politics/international_politics/10+cia+torture+tactics+revealed/3094257.html

CIA USA torture cells in Poland: http://www.ipsnews.net/2013/07/imported-torture-haunts-poland/

CIA USA torture tactics and training: http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/Investigation/story?id=1322866

http://m.gulfnews.com/opinion/the-inhuman-side-of-cia-s-torture-tactics-1.1093077 

http://www.president-bush.com/torture-waterboarding.html

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PWI2g1hMhBs

CIA USA & UK joint spy and torture programs: http://www.guardian.co.uk/law/2012/oct/19/torture-uk-britain-blood-government 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2010/dec/30/margaret-thatcher-spying-john-stonehouse

Corruption in Russian Orthodox Church: clerical privileges: http://www.orthodoxchristianity.net/forum/index.php?topic=26331.0

http://women.lucorg.com/news.php/news/3509.

http://www.arthuride.com/pussy-riot-vladmir-putin-russian-orthodox-church-and-patriarch-kirill/

http://arthuride.wordpress.com/2012/08/17/pussy-riot-putin-dictator-in-russia-kirill-and-corruption-in-church/

Da Vinci as scientist: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/vinci.html

Linnaeus: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/linnaeus.html.

Moral superiority psychosis:

http://www.domstol.dk/KobenhavnsByret/nyheder/domsresumeer/Pages/Greenpeace-aktivisterid%C3%B8mtbetingetf%C3%A6ngseli14dage.aspx

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7092866.stm

http://www.thailandnews.net/story.php?rid=45743367

http://www.utsandiego.com/news/2011/may/27/thailand-arrests-american-for-alleged-king-insult/.

Stand Your Ground laws: right to kill anyone on site:

2838?t=12&akid=3018.274831.PfI9sy

http://act.colorofchange.org/go/2839?t=14&akid=3018.274831.PfI9sy.

http://act.colorofchange.org/go/2834?t=18&akid=3018.274831.PfI9sy

Private investigation: http://uwf.edu/cde/it_academy/PrinciplesofPrivateInvestigation.pdf

Textbook validity of information: http://www.textbookleague.org/54marck.htm.

 

End Notes

  1. Piquero, Nicole (2007). White Collar Crime. Belmont, CA, USA: Wadsworth Thomson Learning; Coleman, James William (1985). The Criminal Elite: the Sociology of White Collar Crime. New York, NY, USA: St. Martin’s Press. Podgor, Ellen S., Israel, Jerold H. (2009). White Collar Crime in a Nutshell. St. Paul, MN, USA: Thomson/West.
  2. Brinkman, Gervase; Brinkman, Gabriel (1961). Blue Collar Crime: An Essay on Crime and Punishment in the Lower Class. (s.l. : s.n.). Yamada, Tadashi; Massourakis, Michael; Rezvani, Farahmand (1984). Occupation, Race, Unemployment and Crime in a Dynamic System. Cambridge, MA, USA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
  3. http://uwf.edu/cde/it_academy/PrinciplesofPrivateInvestigation.pdf
  4. Sleuthfoot or sleuth  was originally known as a sleuthhound, when the term was coined in 1325 CE as it appears in the Middle English sloth – meaning to track or train, borrowing from the far older (c. 1100 CE) Old Norse sloth that the Britons, being the original inhabitants of Britain before being compelled to flee to what is today in France the Province of Brittany, coupled with the word hound that in its initial day meant, used as a verb, to pursue, incite, or harass: appearing before 900 CE in Old English as hund, cognate of the Dutch hond, and Old Norse hundr, coming from the Old Danish and Old German that is a transmogrification of the Latin canis that originated in the Greek language as kýōn (κυνηγόσκυλο that became κυνη in popular idiom) springing from the Sanskrit śván (genitive śunas) that became, in Hindi शिकारी कुत्ता.  In Old Irish the word is cu (genitive con), while in Welsh hound is ci (plural cwn as w  has long been a vowel in the development of the English language
  5. A classic that is old, but timely, is Mill, John Stuart (1875). A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive: Being a Connected View of the Principles of Evidence and the Methods of Scientific Investigation. London, England: Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer. Cp. Beveridge, W. I. B. (c. 1957). The Art of Scientific Investigation. New York, NY, USA: Norton. Солженицын, Александр Исаевич (1974-1978; Aleksandr Isaevič Solženicyn).  Архипелаг ГУЛАГ (trans. The Gulag Archipelago, 1918-1956: An Experiment in Literary Investigation. New York, NY, USA: Harper & Row; GULag or Gulág is an acronym for the Russian term Glavnoye Upravleniye ispravitelno-trudovyh Lagerey (Главное Управление Исправительно-трудовых Лагерей), or “Chief Administration of Corrective Labor Camps”, the bureaucratic name of the governing board of the Soviet labor camp system.
  6. Berenda, Ruth W. (1950). The Influence of the group on the Judgments of Children; an Experimental Investigation.  New York, NY, USA: King’s Crown Press.  Allport, Gordon W (1946). Controlling Group Prejudice. Philadelphia, PA, USA: American Academy of Political and Social Science.  Yzerbyt, Vincent; Judd, Charles M.; Corneille, Olivier (2004). The Psychology of Group Perception: Perceived Variability, Entitativity, and Essentialism. New York, NY, USA and Hove (England): Psychology Press.
  7. United States Department of Housing and Urban Development; Office of the Inspector General (1986). The Investigative Process. Washington, DC., USA: US Department of Housing and Urban Development.  McDevitt, Daniel S. (2005). Managing the Investigative Unit. Springfield, IL: C. C. Thomas.
  8. Bourque, Linda Brookover; Clark, Virginia (1992). Processing Data: the Survey Example. Newbury Park, CA, USA: SAGE.
  9. Publishing Research Results: the Challenges of Open Access. London, UK: Universities, 2007.  Mann, Thomas (2005). The Oxford Guide to Library Research. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.  Atkinson, Beverley (1999), Publishing Research Results. Horticultural Research and Development Association; Australian Macadamia Society; Gordon, NSW, Australia: Horticultural Research & Development Corporation.
  10. Darwin, Charles. (1896). Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries Visited During the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle round the world, under the command of Capt. Fitz Roy, R.N. New York, NY, USA: D. Appleton and Co.
  11. Ghiselin, Michael T. (1969) The Triumph of the Darwinian Method. Los Angeles, CA, USA: University of California Press.   Ghiselin, Michael T. (1974). The Economy of Nature and the Evolution of Sex. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Cp. http://www.textbookleague.org/54marck.htm.
  12. Lamarck (1801). Système des animaux sans vertèbres, ou tableau général des classes, des ordres et des genres de ces animaux; présentant leurs caractères essentiels et leur distribution, d’après la considération de leurs…, Paris, Detreville, VIII: 1-432.  Lamarck later published Recherches sur l’organisation des corps vivants, 1802. Philosophie Zoologique, 1809. Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres, in seven volumes, 1815–1822.[13. Lamarck (1815-1822). Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres, présentant les caractères généraux et particuliers de ces animaux…, Tome 1 (1815): 1–462; Tome 2 (1816): 1–568; Tome 3 (1816): 1–586; Tome 4 (1817): 1–603; Tome 5 (1818): 1–612; Tome 6, Pt.1 (1819): 1–343; Tome 6, Pt.2 (1822): 1–252; Tome 7 (1822): 1–711.
  13. Lamarck (1815). Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertebres.
  14. Darwin, Charles; Wallace, Alfred (August 1858). “On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection”. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 3 (2): 45–62
  15. Darwin, Charles; Thomas Henry Huxley (1859; i.e. 1860). On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. London, England: n.p.; cf. Huxley, Thomas Henry (c. 187?). More Criticism on Darwin. (N.p.), a reproduction published under the title More criticism on Darwin, and Administrative nihilism. New York, NY, USA: Appleton, 1872.  Huxley, Thomas Henry; Royal Society of Great Britain (1888). Charles Robert Darwin (an obituary).  London, England: Harrison and Sons. Cp. Darwin, Charles; Huxley, Thomas Henry (1989). The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. London, England: William Pickering.  Ref. Ide, Arthur Frederick (1985). Origin of the (female) species. Dallas, TX: Monument Press.  Ide, Arthur Frederick (1995). When Adso Became Naked in the Abbey Kitchen: Investigating even the Smallest Detail.  Dallas, TX: Texas Independent Press.
  16. Wöhrle, Georg; Overwien, Oliver (2012). Die Milesier: Anaximander und Anaximenes (and Lampsacenus). Berlin et al, Deutschland: Walter De Gruyter.
  17. Themistius, Oratio 36, §317.  Concke, Marcel (1991). Anaximandre: fragments et témoignages. Paris, France: Presses Universitaires de France.
  18. Hippolitus I,6,I;DK B2; cf. Seligman, Paul (1962). The Apeiron of Anaximander: A Study in the Origin and Function of Metaphysical ideas. London, UK: University of London, Athlone Press. Cp. Couprie, Dirk Leender (1989). De verordening van de tijd: interpretative en vertaling van het fragment van Anaximander met een appendix over de visualisering van zijn vereldbeeld. Dissertation (Proefschrift Amsterdam, Universiteit van Amsterdam; Filosofische reeks, nr. 30—in Dutch covering Anaximander on cosmology): Delft: Eburon.
  19. Empedocles. Empedocles Agrigentinus.  Coord. Sturz, Friedrich Wilhelm on the philosophy of ancient Greece; Lipsiae: Liberis et sumptibus Goescheni (1805) in ancient Greek.
  20. Plato, Timaeus, 48b-c.
  21. Kirk, Geoffrey; Raven, John; Schofield, John (1984). The Pre-Socratic Philosophers: A Critical History with a Selection of Texts (3rd ed.). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. pp. 100–142, 280-321.
  22. Torrey, Harry Beal; Felin, Frances (March 1937). “Was Aristotle an evolutionist?”. The Quarterly Review of Biology 12 (1): 1–18.  Hull, D. L. (1967). “The metaphysics of evolution”. The British Journal for the History of Science 3 (4): 309–337.
  23. Everson, Ted (2007). The Gene: a Historical Perspective. Greenwood. p. 5.  Cf. Wright, M. R. (1995). Empedocles: The Extant Fragments (new ed.). London: Bristol Classical Press.
  24. Sturz, Friedrich Wilhelm (1805). Empedocles Agrigentius. De vita et philosophia ejus exposuit, carminum relioquias ex antiquis scriptoripus collegit, recensuit, illustravit, praefationem et indices adjecit. Lipsiae. Van der Ben, Nicolaas (1975). The proem of Empedocles’ “Peri physios” towards a new ed. Of all fragm. : 31 fragm. Thesis; Amsterdam, Nederland: Grüner.
  25. Aristotle ap. Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 63; compare, however, Timaeus, ap. Diogenes Laërtius, 66, 76. What exists of Empedocles’ writings are but fragments and are now at the Bibliothèque nationale et universtaire, Strassbourg.
  26. John Ray was still confessing the debt of god in his Catalogue of Cambridge Plants, in 1660; this continued in his works The Wisdom of God Manifested in the Works of the Creation (1691), and Three Physico-Theological Discourses (1692).  Cp. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/linnaeus.html.
  27. da Vinci, Leonardo; Clayton, Martin; Philo, Ronald; and Queen’s Gallery. (2012). Leonardo da Vinci, Anatomist. (London, UK): Royal Collection Publications. da Vinci, Leonardo; Pedretti, Carlo; Salvi, Paola; et al. (2008). The Temple of the Soul: the anatomy of Leonardo Da Vinci between Mondinus and Berengarisu: twenty-two sheets of manuscripts and drawings in the Royal Libary of Windsor and other collections in their chronological order. Foligno, Italia: Cartei & Bianci Publishers.
  28. Vasari, Giorgio (1681). Velle vite de piu eccellenti pittori, scultori et architetti. Bolonga, Italia: per li Manolessi.; cf. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/vinci.html. For a rejoinder, read: Jablonka, E.; Lamb, M. J. (2007). “Précis of evolution in four dimensions”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (4): 353–392. Kemp, Martin; da Vinci, Leonardo. (2006). Leonardo da Vinci: the Marvellous (sic) Works of Nature and Man. Oxford, UK; New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press. Da Vinci, Leonardo (2011). The Da Vinci Notebooks: a Dazzling Array of Da Vinci’s Celebrated and Inspirational Inventions, Theories, and Observations. New York, NY, USA: Arcade Publications.
  29. Breakwell, Glynis M. (1990). Interviewing. Leicester (England): British Psychological Society; New York, NY, USA: Routledge, Chapman & Hall.  Fielding, Nigel (2003). Interviewing. London, UK; Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: SAGE.
  30. On police questioning and criminal investigation, read: Mulbar, Harold (1951). Interrogation. Springfield, IL, USA: Thomas. On the issue of torture, especially by the CIA, read: McCoy, Alfred W. (2006). A Question of Torture: CIA Interrogation, from the Cold War to the War on Terror. New York, NY, USA: Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt and Co.; cp. CIA building prisons and torture cells and chambers in Poland at http://www.ipsnews.net/2013/07/imported-torture-haunts-poland/; CIA torture tactics and training in the most vile forms of torture are exposed here: http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/Investigation/story?id=1322866; the CIA openly recruits sadists and assassins(http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/jurisprudence/2009/03/ice_water_and_sweatboxes.html), and training those who have not killed how to kill women, children, the elderly and any one the CIA deems are “non-essential people”, and like Alberto Fujimori of Perú, targets teachers, professors and students, especially in Latin America and central Europe and the Middle east, read here http://www.channel4.com/news/articles/politics/international_politics/10+cia+torture+tactics+revealed/3094257.html, the two worse presidents in the history of the USA who have encouraged and condoned torture are first: George W. Bush who approved waterboarding and various other nefarious acts; and, second, Barrack Obama, who has kept these tactics “viable” and has done nothing to stop the destruction of the rights of people and descent of the Middle Class, read here: http://m.gulfnews.com/opinion/the-inhuman-side-of-cia-s-torture-tactics-1.1093077 and http://www.president-bush.com/torture-waterboarding.html. On moral, legal, and ethical aspects of interrogation, read: Skerker, Michael (2010). An Ethics of Interrogation. Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press.
  31. This was confirmed by the Sixth Synod of Constantinople (Canon 82); Higgins, Godfrey (1965; originally published in 1836 in London: Longman, Rees) Anacalypsis: an Attempt to Draw Aside the Veil of the Saitic Isis: or an inquiry into the origin of languages, nations, and religions. New Hyde Park, NY, USA: University Books, vol. ii. p. 3.
  32. Greenberg, Karen; Dratel, Joshua L. (2005). The Torture Papers: the Road to Abu Ghraib. New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press. Cohn, Marjorie (2011). The United States and Torture: Interrogation, Incarceration, and Abuse. New York, NY, USA: New York University Press.
  33. McCoy, Alfred (2007). A Question of Torture: CIA Interrogation, from the Cold War to the War on Terror. Henry Holt & Co. pp. 16–18, 60-109.
  34. Thomas, Gordon (1989). Journey Into Madness: the True Story of Secret CIA Mind Control and Medical Abuse. New York, NY, USA: Bantam Books.
  35. Watch: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PWI2g1hMhBs
  36. Sahito, F. H., “Interrogational Neuroimaging: The Missing Element in Counter-Terrorism.” International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies Vol. 3 No. 3 July 2013, pp. 592‐607. Smith, S. M.; Stinson, V.; Patry, M. W. (2010). “High Risk Interrogation: Using the ‘Mr. Big’ technique to elicit confessions.”  Law and Human Behavior, 34, pp. 39-40. Dillon, Sam (1991). Comandos: the CIA and Nicaragua’s Contra Rebels. New York, NY, USA: H. Holt. Cf. http://www.guardian.co.uk/law/2012/oct/19/torture-uk-britain-blood-government and http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2010/dec/30/margaret-thatcher-spying-john-stonehouse.
  37. Claudia Brockmann und Reinhard Chedor: Vernehmung. Hilfen für den Praktiker, Polizei, Psychologie, 120 S., Verlag Deutsche Polizeiliteratur, Hilden 1999. Wendler, A./Hoffmann, H.: Technik und Taktik der Befragung im Gerichtsverfahren, Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2009. Cf. http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article33307.htm, Condi Rice perpetuated the lie that the USA “does not condone nor use torture” even when evidence showed that the CIA tortured German citizes: http://www.turkishweekly.net/news/22902/-rice-and-merkel-discuss-cia-row.html. For the long history of the CIA spying on Germans in Germany and elsewhere with the sanction and approval of all leaders of the German government through the torturous days of Angela Merkel, read: http://www.dw.de/nsa-permission-to-spy-in-germany/a-16981062?maca=en-newsletter_en_bulletin-2097-html-newsletter
  38. Cosentino, Marc (2010). Case in point: complete case interview preparation. Needham, MA, USA: Burgee Press.
  39. Kuypers, Jim A. (2002). Press Bias and Politics: How the Media Frame Controversial Issues. Westport, CT: Praeger.  Minnesota Institute of Legal Education (2000).  Ethical Issues & Elimination of Bias. Minneapolis, MN, USA: Minnesota Institute of Legal Education.
  40. Pandelaere, Mario; Dewitt, Siegfriend (2005). Is this a Question? Not for Long: the Statement Bias. Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Faculty of Economics and Applied Economics, Department of Applied Economics.
  41. Janis, Irving L (1982).  Victims of Group think: A Psychological Study of Foreign- Policy Decisions and Fiascoes. 2d ed. (1st ed. 1972) Boston, MA, USA: Houghton Mifflin.
  42. Orwell, George (1949). 1984: a Novel. New York, NY, USA: Signet Classic
  43. Anderson, Hans Christian; McKay, Sindy (1999). The Emperor’s New Clothes. (S.I.): Treasure Bay.
  44. Kanouse, David E; Janis, Irving Lester; CRM/McGraw-Hill Films (1982). Group Dynamics: Groupthink. New York, NY, USA: CRM, McGraw-Hill Films.
  45. Giessner, Steffen R.; van Knippenberg, Daan; van Ginkel, Wendy; Sleebos, Ed (2013) “Team-oriented leadership: The interactive effects of leader group prototypicality, accountability, and team identification.” doi: 10.1037/a0032445 Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 98(4), July, 658-667.
  46. Swann Jr., William B.; Jetten, Jolanda; Gómez, Ángel; Whitehouse, Harvey; Bastian, Brock (2012). “When group membership gets personal: A theory of identity fusion.” doi: 10.1037/a0028589 Psychological Review, Vol 119(3), July, 441-456.
  47. Lemay Jr., Edward P.; Overall, Nickola C.; Clark, Margaret S. (2012). “Experiences and interpersonal consequences of hurt feelings and anger.” doi: 10.1037/a0030064 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 103(6), December, 982-1006.
  48. Wright, W. K. (1907). “Esquisse d’une morale positive.” doi: 10.1037/h0065751. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 4(2), February, 61-63; a review of the original article by G. Blot, published in 1906.
  49. Eusebius, Vita Constantini IV:36-37.
  50. Heerdink, Marc W.; van Kleef, Gerben A.; Homan, Astrid C.; Fischer, Agneta H. (2013). “On the social influence of emotions in groups: Interpersonal effects of anger and happiness on conformity versus deviance.” doi: 10.1037/a0033362 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 105(2), August, 262-284. Savage, Lorraine (2009). Peer Pressure. Detroit, MI: Greenhaven Press. Raum, Elizabeth (2008). Peer Pressure. Chicago, IL, USA: Heinemann Library. Hernandez, Marcos Behean (1978). Peer Pressure. Rockville, MD, USA: Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, National Institute on Drug Abuse. Shy, Oz (2005). Dynamic models of religious conformity and conversion: theory and calibration. Berlin, Deutschland: WZB. Spradley, James P.; McCurdy, David W. (2003). Conformity and Conflict: Readings in Cultural Anthropology. Boston, MA, USA: Allyn and Bacon.
  51. Murphy, Cullen (2012). God’s jury: the Inquisition and the Making of the Modern World. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt; Montealegre de Aulestia, Francisca Gómez Boquete de Montealegre marquesa de (1760?). Relacion de meritos, y servicios, hecos al Santo oficio de la Inquisicion en distintos tribunales de los reynos de España, como en el de la Ciudad de los Reyes del Perú. (n.p.).
  52. Luther, Martin. Werk Weimar Ausgabe 51:194-196; J.G. Walch, Dr. Martin Luthers Sämmtliche Schriften, 23 vols. (St. Louis: Concordia, 1883), 12:1264-1267.
  53. Michael, Robert (2006). Holy Hatred: Christianity, Anti-Semitism, and the Holocaust. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  54. Swiss Penal Code, SR/RS 311.0, art. 296; COP15: http://www.domstol.dk/KobenhavnsByret/nyheder/domsresumeer/Pages/Greenpeace-aktivisterid%C3%B8mtbetingetf%C3%A6ngseli14dage.aspx; Norway: Forøves nogen Ærekrenkelse mod Kongen eller Regenten, straffes den skyldige med Hefte eller Fængsel indtil 5 Aar; Spain: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7092866.stm. Thailand: Todd Pitman and Sinfah Tunsarawuth (27 March 2011). “Thailand arrests American for alleged king insult”. Associated Press. Retrieved 26 July 2013: http://www.foxnews.com/world/2011/05/27/thailand-arrests-american-alleged-king-insult/ and http://www.thailandnews.net/story.php?rid=45743367 and http://www.utsandiego.com/news/2011/may/27/thailand-arrests-american-for-alleged-king-insult/.
  55. “Florida ‘stand your ground’ law yields some shocking outcomes depending on how law is applied,” Tampa Bay Times, 06-01-12
    http://act.colorofchange.org/go/2838?t=12&akid=3018.274831.PfI9sy and “Viewpoint: The Bravery of Obama’s Trayvon Speech,” Time, 06-22-13
    http://act.colorofchange.org/go/2839?t=14&akid=3018.274831.PfI9sy.
  56. “ALEC and the NRA: Profiting from gun violence,” ColorOfChange campaign, 01-04-13 http://act.colorofchange.org/go/2834?t=18&akid=3018.274831.PfI9sy.
  57. Yoshida, Emiko (2009). Impacts of implicit normative evaluations on stereotyping and prejudice. Waterloo, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Department of Psychology. Amodio, David M.; Hamilton, Holly K. (2012). “Intergroup anxiety effects on implicit racial evaluation and stereotyping.” doi: 10.1037/a0029016 Emotion, Vol. 12(6), December, 1273-1280.
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4 comments to Investigation: First tool toward a definition of fact

  • Bobbie  says:

    Enlightening as always, but I have to admit I wish some of this information had not passed through my brain. It’s not that I’m complacent (I hope), but that I get too emotionally involved in things I cannot change.

  • Sami Swan Thompson  says:

    Your articles are always so well-researched and documented, and this one is no exception. Although man’s cruelty to man makes me cringe, it’s unavoidable as long as we discuss our own species. Your observations on “group think” were very enlightening. I’ve seen this in action, but didn’t have your expertise and explanation to understand it completely.

    Is there any chance you might publish these articles in a book? Just hoping!

  • Teófila Altamirano  says:

    Thank you very much for sharing the information, which was very insight full and thought provoking because it proves the importance of this particular investigation and most importantly the adequate translation to interpret and understand nature and life itself and what we are made of. Maybe this is the most important part and that’s why many scientists like Galileo and Copernicus suffered throughout history, they were victims of religious groups and Holy Inquisition that were possibly scared of their heretical ideas and were forced to defend their knowledge and deep understanding, which proves that information is power although this power actually causes the owners some discomfort from powerful religious and societal groups.

  • joseph  says:

    I had to refresh the page times to look at this page for reasons unknown, however, the info here had been worth the wait.”

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