Vaccinations in the USA–A History.

In a country that prioritizes individual freedom as much as the U.S. does, citizens do not have the right to harm their colleagues or their colleagues’ families, friends and communities. One person’s right to a healthy life is greater than another person’s right to a specific job. The government (state and federal) has been requiring vaccinations of all people even before the nation existed–and their have been violent protests against government action to save all the people by those who claim they riot and protest in the name of freeDUMB.

In 1777, smallpox was a big enough problem for the bedraggled American army that George Washington thought it could jeopardize the Revolution.1 In the decades that followed, immunization treatments became safer (the Revolutionary War method killed 2 percent or 3 percent of recipients), and mandates became more common, in the military and beyond. They also tended to generate hostility from a small minority of Americans.

1905 mandatory vaccination

In 1905, when the Supreme Court ruled against the Massachusetts pastor who did not want to take a smallpox vaccine,2 Justice John Marshall Harlan explained that the Constitution did not allow Americans always to behave however they chose. “Real liberty for all could not exist,” Harlan wrote in his majority opinion, if people could act “regardless of the injury that may be done to others.”

Symptoms of human influenzas are described by Hippocrates (c. 400 BCE).3  The first symptoms are recorded in 1173 (CE).4 The name “influenza” originated in 15th century Italy, from an epidemic attributed to “influence of the stars.”5 It was so strong that mandatory vaccinations were determined necessary. The first documented pandemic, or worldwide epidemic, that clearly fits the description of influenza was in 1580. At least four pandemics of influenza occurred in the 19th century, three in the 20th century, and one thus far in the 21st century. The pandemic of “Spanish” influenza in 1918–1919 caused an estimated 21 million deaths worldwide. The first documented pandemic, or worldwide epidemic, that clearly fits the description of influenza was in 1580. At least four pandemics of influenza occurred in the 19th century, three in the 20th century, and one thus far in the 21st century. The pandemic of “Spanish” influenza in 1918–1919 caused an estimated 21 million deaths worldwide. Epidemiologists quickly traced the novel influenza strain to ferrets. In the spring of 1933 a team of Medical Research Council (MRC)6  staff gathered nasal fluids and throat garglings from a sick researcher, filtered them, and dripped them into ferrets. Within forty-eight hours the ferrets would start sneezing and displaying signs of an influenza-like disease.  Other ferrets became ill when exposed to the ferrets with influenza, either via direct contact or when inoculated with nasal washings.7

1918 Seattle WA closed churches, schools, and banned large gatherings

In 1918, a severe pandemic spread quickly because of misinformation and the government was required to close schools, churches, clubs, and places where more than 10 people gathered. Protests were lead by leaders of Protestant religions, women, businesses and factories that feared if there were bans against groups their profit margins would suffer and “outside businesses” (e.g. foreign based, with much of the attention turned to the “Canadian threat” of Canada “dumping products and food stuffs” in the United States. Politicians who were backed by big business and industries (Carnegie, Rockefeller, White, etc.) also fought against the protection of the people for fear of alienating their rich backers “with deep pockets.” Many defied the order to quarantine–and died because of their vanity and stupidity–especially in the quest of profits and political points. Public outcry to health directives, especially  social distancing and forced wearing of masks led many corrupt state and city leader to rollback directives too quickly. This spread the influenza (one of the forms of COVID–an acronym: ‘CO’ stands for corona, ‘VI’ for virus, and ‘D’ for disease linked to the same family of viruses as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and some types of common cold8) strain that was given the racist name of the Spanish Flu and Spanish Virus. From San Francisco to Atlanta, Denver to Cleveland, pockets of opposition sprang up to decry the effects of the restrictions on businesses, religious communities and ordinary people.

Chicago officials inspect street cleaners during the 1918 pandemic. (Bettmann Archive)

1918 citizens had the option “wear a mask or go to jail.”

Opposition to social distancing guidelines in 1918 was far-flung and splintered. Some of the most ardent protesters were religious leaders. In Portland, Oregon, Christian Scientists argued that flu was a normal occurrence and their faith would save them.. At least two synagogues in Cleveland decided to hold some small services in defiance of the city’s order, which prompted police to arrest some of the worshippers. In reality, the “Spanish flu” that many fundamentalist christian churches congregations claimed they could pray away did not disappear: instead it killed an estimated 675,000 Americans when the world’s population, at that time, was only 20-50 million people worldwide.9 The only thing that rivaled it was the Black Death that was a devastating global epidemic of bubonic plague that struck Europe and Asia in the mid-1300s. The plague arrived in Europe in October 1347, when 12 ships from the Black Sea docked at the Sicilian port of Messina. Most sailors aboard the ships were dead. Those that were alive were gravely ill and covered in black boils that oozed blood and pus. But the people of Europe rejected all ideas of staying away from the ill, dying, and dead. Over the next five years, the Black Death would kill more than 20 million people in Europe—almost one-third of the continent’s population.10From the Brink of the Apocalypse: Confronting Famine, War, Plague and Death in the Later Middle Ages (second ed.). Routledge, pp. 9-13. Cf. Austin Alchon, Suzanne (2003). A pest in the land: new world epidemics in a global perspective. University of New Mexico Press, p 21. Duncan, Christopher John, and Susan Scott. “What caused the black death?.” Postgraduate medical journal 81.955 (2005): 315–320; and Alfano, Vincenzo, and Manuela Sgobbi. “A fame, peste et bello libera nos Domine: An Analysis of the Black Death in Chioggia in 1630.” Journal of Family History (2021).]

Black (Bubonic Plague) Death in Paris, 1348

A monk who had toiled among the dying left a note on a small fragment of paper that cried out what many were thinking: Πού είναι ο Θεός μας; Γιατί δεν έχουν μετρήσει όλες οι προσευχές, τα κεριά και οι χάντρες μας ευσεβώς να μην μας στρέφουν το βλέμμα με συμπόνια; Είναι νεκρός; Υπήρξε ποτέ ο Θεός μας;11 The people had been forewarned. Even before the “death ships” pulled into port at Messina, many Europeans had heard rumors about a “Great Pestilence” that was carving a deadly path across the trade routes of the Near and Far East. Indeed, in the early 1340s, the disease had struck China, India, Persia, Syria and Egypt. the Italian poet Giovanni Boccaccio wrote: “In men and women alike at the beginning of the malady, certain swellings, either on the groin or under the armpits…waxed to the bigness of a common apple, others to the size of an egg, some more and some less, and these the vulgar named plague-boils.” The French biologist Alexandre Yersin discovered the germ bacillus at the end of the 19th century. It  travels from person to person through the air, as well as through the bite of infected fleas and rats.12 While many have argued that the plague came from rats, modern research strongly suggests it was the result of dirty humans who defecated in the streets, through garbage out of windows, and paid no attention to personal hygiene.[1, https://www.cnn.com/2018/01/16/health/black-death-plague-spread-by-humans-intl/index.html.] Despite of all this, people still insisted on visiting “the sick” and touching and kissing the sores “as did Jesus” [sic] and gathering in large groups to exchange the osculum pacis (kiss of peace) to hurry the work of their god.

A flu cartoon published in The San Diego Union on December 7, 1918 (The San Diego Union)

More than 100 people were rounded up and charged with “disturbing the peace” shortly after the measure went into place and were fined $5 on one day in October.13 Most cases were dismissed, and the proceeds went to support the American Red Cross. An emergency flu hospital was staffed by US Navy Hospital corpsman in the Civic Center of San Francisco to help care for the sick and dying. There was a lot of pressure in pretty much all of these American cities to reopen. When they removed those restrictions too soon, then many cities saw a resurgence in cases.14

1918 deaths but most businesses mourned the loss of profits and not people.

Deaths from the influenza (COVID) jumped daily. No city or town was spared. Papers throughout the nation carried headline articles of the loss of life–and profits.

In the late summer of 1918, the devastating second wave15 of the “Spanish” flu16 arrived on America’s shores. Carried by World War I doughboys17 returning home from Europe, the newly virulent virus spread first from Boston to New York and Philadelphia before traveling West to infect panicked populations from St. Louis to San Francisco.

SGT Albert Martin Gitchell

One of the first registered cases was Albert Gitchell, February 17, 1890 – March 17, 1968 (aged 78) a U.S. Army cook at Camp Funston in Kansas, who was hospitalized with a 104-degree fever. The virus spread quickly through the Army installation, home to 54,000 troops. He survived. Today he is buried at Hot Springs, Fall River County, South Dakota.18 By the end of the month, 1,100 troops had been hospitalized and 38 had died after developing pneumonia. Lacking a vaccine or even a known cause of the outbreak, mayors and city health officials were left to improvise. To celebrate the end of World War I, many mayors and a few governors wanted to hold big parades, as did the Philadelphia’s Public

Dr Wilmer Krusen 1869-1943

Health Director: Wilmer Krusen, a gynecologist. When Krusen announced that the parade was to be held September 28. Even when cases of the influenza were reported, he assured everyone that they were safe. Krusen insisted that the parade must go on, since it would raise millions of dollars in war bonds, and he played down the danger of spreading the disease. On September 28, a patriotic procession of soldiers, Boy Scouts, marching bands and local dignitaries stretched two miles through downtown Philadelphia with sidewalks packed with spectators. Just 72 hours after the parade, all 31 of Philadelphia’s hospitals were full and 2,600 people were dead by the end of the week.19

Philadelphia buries its dead in mass graves 1918

Two days later, after the parade was over, Dr. Krusen acknowledged that the city was in the throes of an epidemic — but it was too late: Philadelphia did not have a chance. Hundreds of police officers came down with a “blue flu,” impeding law enforcement. Telephone switchboard operators fell ill, disrupting communication. Schools and public venues closed, funeral processions competed for street space and church bells tolled incessantly for the dead.

James Rolph

It was little better in San Francisco. By mid-October, 1918, the cases jumped from 169 to 2,000 in just one week. Later that month, Mayor James Rolph put in place social distancing practices. By the end of October, there were 20,000 cases and more than 1,000 deaths. Shortly after the New Year in 1919, the city was hit with 600 new cases in one day, prompting the Board of Supervisors to re-enact the mandatory mask ordinance. California  government officials ordered citizens in 1918 to wear masks. They shuttered schools, theaters and businesses. Bodies piled up in makeshift morgues. Protests against the mandate eventually led to the formation of the James Rolph20

Spit was feared as transmitting the virus in 1918–it still does so today..

After the first cases of the 1918 flu reached San Francisco in late September 1918, the city joined with others around the country in recommending – then a few days later, requiring,  – that residents wear masks whenever they were out in public. But a few thousand people gathered in San Francisco to protest against measures to slow the spread of the flu. The group, known as the Anti-Mask League, said requiring people to wear them was unconstitutional.

A trolley operator refuses to let a passenger without a mask on board. US National Archives

Trolleys and other means of transportation refused to let passengers  enter without a mask on board. During the 1918 pandemic, reporters spotted San Francisco Mayor James Rolph out in public, posing with a congressman, an admiral and two judges – all without masks. When the city’s police chief spotted the photo, he promptly fined his boss $50.

The mayor of San Jose, California, apologized for attending a Thanksgiving dinner this year with more households than allowed under state regulations. In a statement posted on social media Dec. 1, Mayor Sam Liccardo said the gathering at his parents’ house consisted of eight people from five households. Restrictions issued Nov. 13 limited gatherings at a private household to three, he acknowledged. There was little sympathy for the mayor or anti-maskers who were endangering every person’s life and health.

1918 anti-mask meetings sprang up and ask mask disappeared the virus spiked.

The detractors eventually got their way when the order was lifted in February, and cases spiked. With 45,000 cases and more than 3,000 deaths, the city was reported to have been one of, if not, the hardest-hit big city.

In Portland, Oregon, Christian Scientists, who said they believed they were immune to the flu because of their beliefs and reject science, protested restrictions on public gatherings, according to the center’s research. The group claimed that “the police power of the state should not be used to prevent Christian worship in the churches.” Another group of Christian Scientists successfully sued Los Angeles, claiming the restrictions unfairly targeted religious groups. The seeds of racism were clear.

Asa Griggs Candler

Entertainment and religious groups also protested. They were successful in Atlanta, where the Mayor Asa Griggs Candler (December 30, 1851 – March 12, 1929), was a business tycoon and politician who bought the Coca Cola recipe for $238.98 from chemist John Stith Pemberton and developed it into a major company.21 Candler, as mayor (1917-1919) lifted pandemic restricts on October 26, 1918, and influenza cases rapidly spiked reaching higher spikes around Thanksgiving and Christmas as families had large gatherings for the holidays, and churches and synagogues filled and spread the virus. Many Americans were trying to find a scapegoat for their troubles, and claimed it was from Spain (the same lie Trump claimed when he called COVID-19 was the “China Virus” or “Wuhan Virus” with no scientific proof22) the epidemiologists found that the most likely sites of origin to be France and the United States, and most agreed with Macfarlane Burnet, who concluded that the evidence was “strongly suggestive” that the 1918 influenza pandemic began in the United States, and that its spread was “intimately related to war conditions and especially the arrival of American troops in France”.23

Throat swab (virology)

In 1933, there was an outbreak of influenza: an infectious viral illness. Scientists took throat washings from patients with influenza symptoms and filtered them through a material that bacteria could not pass through.  Hemagglutinin is the major surface glycoprotein of the influenza virus and enables it to attach to the host cell. Cleavage of hemagglutinin by host proteases—generating a hydrophobic tail that is essential for the fusion of viral and cell membranes24—is a prerequisite for virus replication and seems to be a key factor in the virulence of influenza viruses. Mammalian and avirulent avian flu viruses usually have a single basic amino-acid residue at their hemagglutinin cleavage site and depend on specific host proteases found in only one or two tissues for hemagglutinin cleavage.25

Wilson Smith an epidemiologist who found a cure for COVID-flu

Wilson Smith, (June 21, 1897-July 10, 1965) a British physician, virologist, and  immunologist, went into research and led a virus research group at the Medical Research Council in Hampstead in north London. There, in 1933 he, in collaboration with Christopher Andrewes and Patrick Laidlaw, succeeded in isolating human influenza A virus26  and transferring it to ferrets. The domestic or European ferret ( Mustela putorius furo ) has been domesticated for thousands of years. Ferrets are often used as models to study respiratory diseases as they often contract the same respiratory viruses as humans and their lungs and airways bare a striking physiological similarity to human’s. The ferret is closer biologically and physiologically to humans than the mouse or the rat.27 In particular, they have been useful in determining the environmental factors that influence seasonal reproductive activity and the physiological factors which control puberty and ovulation. In addition, they have been used to study the control of sexual differentiation in the brain, auditory research, as well as to develop a bird and swine flu vaccines and anti-emetics for cancer patients. Most research ferrets are males, due to estrus-related health problems in females.28 In general, Democrats are more receptive to scientific research, whereas Republican are less receptive, and white christian evangelicals (male and female) have basic disapproval or and respect for science.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt the Great Depression and the pandemic and won.

Where as Republicans in the twentieth century have been lax to do anything but complain about the pandemic, the Democratic party, led by Franklin Delano Roosevelt, pushed against the flu and the ongoing depression. FDR brings the same optimism and energy to the White House that his cousin Theodore displayed. Aimed at ending the Depression, his sweeping New Deal restores the people’s self-confidence and transforms the relationship between them and their government. Eleanor Roosevelt rejected the traditional role of first lady, becomes her husband’s liberal conscience and a sometimes controversial political force.29

Novant Health fired 175 employees who were not vaccinated–out of over 35,000 employees–and without severance pay

A North Carolina hospital system, Novant Health, last week suspended 375 workers, or about 1 percent of its work force, for being unvaccinated. By the end of the week, more than half of them — about 200 — received a shot and were reinstated. Rightfully, in the best interest of patients and staff who have been vaccinated, 175 non-vaccinated employees were fired without compensation. “Our sacred responsibility is to make sure people are not harmed when they come into any of our facilities and the way we do that is put every barrier up that would protect them…The most important thing that we do is keeping patients safe,” said Dr. David Priest, chief safety, quality, and epidemiology officer for Novant Health.30

These masks are illustrated for their purpose and effectiveness:

The two biggest enemies of humankind spreading misinformation and the COVID virus are North Texas televangelists Kenneth and Gloria Copeland. In their absurd video of deathly misinformation, these genocidal uneducated (they do not have a background or education in medicine or science) health terrorists claim that all it takes is to believe in Jesus (a god only recognized by a small percentage of the human population) trumpeting the preposterous lie that “Jesus himself gave us the flu shot.”31 Kenneth Copeland, an active domestic terrorist, threatened Christians who don’t vote for Trum and “going to be guilty of murder.”32 as he has a “direct line” to deliver messages from god to Trump.33 His most insane claim was that Ted Cruz has ben “called an anointed by god to be the next president” in 2016.34 Somehow his god made another mistake as Trump won in 2016 because of the Electoral College even though he lost the popular vote by nearly 3 million–but then his god prefers land over people.


  1.   An outbreak had already led to one American defeat, at the Battle of Quebec. To prevent more, Washington ordered immunizations — done quietly, so the British would not hear how many Americans were sick — for all troops who had not yet had the virus.[1. https://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/03/books/review/Cayton-t.html?campaign_id=9&emc=edit_nn_20210930&instance_id=41676&nl=the-morning&regi_id=72145246&segment_id=70283&te=1&user_id=ac886d42dd97af0dc60dcc57826f0103. Cf. https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2021/jul/30/viral-image/yes-george-washington-ordered-troops-be-inoculated/. Cp. https://www.loc.gov/rr/scitech/GW&smallpoxinoculation.html. Fenn, Elizabeth (2001). Pox Americana: the Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775-82. New York: Hill and Wang. Ref. https://www.battlefields.org/learn/articles/washington-inoculates-army. Read: https://www.newsweek.com/george-washington-order-mass-inoculation-troops-covid-vaccine-1617984.
  2. https://www.nytimes.com/2021/09/09/us/politics/vaccine-mandates-history.html?campaign_id=9&emc=edit_nn_20210930&instance_id=41676&nl=the-morning&regi_id=72145246&segment_id=70283&te=1&user_id=ac886d42dd97af0dc60dcc57826f0103.
  3. Martin, P; Martin-Granel E (June 2006). “2,500-year evolution of the term epidemic”. Emerging Infectious Diseases 12 (6): 976–80. Lam, Vincent; Lee, Colin (2009-11-17). The Flu Pandemic and You: A Canadian Guide.
  4. Potter, C. W. (October 2001). “A history of influenza”. Journal of Applied Microbiology 91 (4): 572–9. Available on-line: https://sfamjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2001.01492.x
  5. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9360364/ article is in Japanese.
  6. https://mrc.ukri.org/.
  7. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673600785412.
  8. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/key-messages-and-actions-for-covid-19-prevention-and-control-in-schools-march-2020.pdf?sfvrsn=baf81d52_4#:~:text=’CO’%20stands%20for,types%20of%20common%20cold..
  9. https://www.history.com/news/spanish-flu-deaths-october-1918.
  10. Howard, Jenny (6 July 2020). “Plague was one of history’s deadliest diseases – then we found a cure”. National Geographic. Aberth, John (2010) [2000
  11. Where is our God? Why have not all our prayers, candles lit, and beads counted piously not turned his eye upon us with compassion? Is he dead? Has our god ever existed?
  12. https://www.history.com/news/medieval-black-death-was-airborne-scientists-say.
  13. https://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/health/story/2020-08-15/1918-flu-mask-tickets.
  14. https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/politics-news/san-francisco-had-1918-flu-under-control-then-it-lifted-n1191141.
  15. https://www.history.com/news/spanish-flu-second-wave-resurgence.
  16. https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-i/1918-flu-pandemic.
  17. https://www.history.com/news/why-were-americans-who-served-in-world-war-i-called-doughboys.
  18. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/21935798/albert-martin-gitchell.
  19. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/philadelphia-threw-wwi-parade-gave-thousands-onlookers-flu-180970372/. Cp. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/748093. Cf. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/04/us/coronavirus-spanish-flu-philadelphia-pennsylvania.html.
  20. Mrs. EC Harrington, who was identified as the group’s chairman, urged the city Board of Supervisors to give residents “speedy relief” from the “burdensome” requirement, according to board’s meeting minutes. The group included influential business and community leaders, including a member of the Board of Supervisors. https://books.google.com/books?id=zMMbAAAAIAAJ&newbks=0&printsec=frontcover&pg=PA50&dq=anti-mask+league+of+1919&hl=en#v=onepage&q=anti-mask%20league%20of%201919&f=false.
  21. “Asa Candler Purchases The Coca-Cola Company“. The Coca-Cola Company. Cp. “A.G. Candler, Maker Of Coca-Cola, Dies. Atlanta Philanthropist, 77, Had Been Ill in Hospital Founded by Him Since 1926. Amassed Large Fortune. Methodists Got $7,000,000. Other Millions Used to Help South In Times of Stress. Aided South With His Fortune. Succeeded in Company by Son. Gave $7,000,000 to Methodists”. The New York Times. March 13, 1929.
  22. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/apr/30/donald-trump-coronavirus-chinese-lab-claim. Cp. https://www.cnn.com/2020/04/30/politics/trump-intelligence-community-china-coronavirus-origins/index.html. Cf. https://www.science.org/news/2020/07/trump-owes-us-apology-chinese-scientist-center-covid-19-origin-theories-speaks-out, and https://time.com/6051414/donald-trump-wuhan-laboratory-leak/.
  23. Burnet, Frank Macfarlane and Ellen Clark (1942). Influenza: A Survey of the Last 50 Years in the Light of Modern Work on the Virus of Epidemic Influenza. Melbourne, Australia: Macmillan. Although Asia’s population density and the close proximity of humans and animals there makes the region particularly dangerous, the evidence of 1918—confirmed by the H7N7 outbreak in Europe of 2003—demonstrates the need for surveillance worldwide. Cp. Basler CF, Reid AH, Dybing JK, Janczewski TA, Fanning TG, Zheng H, Salvatore M, Perdue ML, Swayne DE, Garcia-Sastre A, Palese P, Taubenberger JK. Sequence of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus nonstructural gene (NS) segment and characterization of recombinant viruses bearing the 1918 NS genes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America2001;98:2746–2751.
  24. Bullough, P.A., Hughson, F.M., Skehel, J.J. & Wiley, D.C. (1994) “Structure of influenza haemagglutinin at the pH of membrane fusion.” Nature 371, 37–41.
  25. Rott, R., Klenk, H.-D., Nagai, Y. & Tashiro, M. ( 1995) “Influenza viruses, cell enzymes and pathogenicity.” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 152, S16–S19. Several more articles are in  Japanese: Shimizu, K. (1997). “[History of influenza epidemics and discovery of influenza virus.” Cf. Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine55 (10): 2505–2511. Cp. Fanning TG, Taubenberger JK. Phylogenetically important regions of the influenza A H1 hemagglutinin protein. Virus Res. 1999;65:33–42.
  26. Plotkin, Stanley A.; Orenstein, Walter A.; Offit, Paul A., eds. (1 October 2012). “A short history of vaccines by Susan L. Plotkin and Stanley A. Plotkin”. Vaccines (6th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 1–13. Cp. Smith W; Andrewes CH; Laidlaw PF (1933). “A Virus Obtained From Influenza Patients”. The Lancet2 (5732): 66–68.
  27. https://www.understandinganimalresearch.org.uk/animals/a-z-animals/ferret/.
  28. Roberta Sipioni Ball (2006). “Issues to Consider for Preparing Ferrets as Research Subjects in the Laboratory.” Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Journal. vol. 47, issue 4, pp. 348-357.
  29. https://www.pbssocal.org/shows/roosevelts/episodes/roosevelts-part-5-rising-road-1933-1939.
  30. https://www.the-dispatch.com/story/news/2021/09/29/novant-health-fired-175-employees-adheres-creed-healthcare-workers-do-no-harm-lexington-thomasville/5903676001/. Cp. https://www.wcnc.com/article/news/health/coronavirus/vaccine/novant-health-employee-suspension-covid-vaccine-mandate-policy/275-2863d48e-0795-4a4e-ad2c-d790b6c7ed56. Cf. https://apnews.com/article/coronavirus-pandemic-business-health-charlotte-north-carolina-f2df1eecc0e34d128e01f572696c73d6. Ref. https://apnews.com/article/coronavirus-pandemic-business-health-charlotte-north-carolina-f2df1eecc0e34d128e01f572696c73d6.
  31. https://www.rightwingwatch.org/post/gloria-copeland-no-need-for-flu-shots-because-jesus-himself-gave-us-the-flu-shot/.
  32. https://www.rightwingwatch.org/post/kenneth-copeland-christians-who-dont-vote-for-trump-are-going-to-be-guilty-of-murder/.”
  33. https://www.rightwingwatch.org/post/kenneth-copeland-now-has-a-direct-line-to-deliver-messages-from-god-to-president-trump/.
  34. https://www.rightwingwatch.org/post/kenneth-copeland-declares-that-ted-cruz-has-been-called-and-anointed-by-god-to-be-the-next-president/.

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